留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

中国肾脏移植受者尿路感染临床诊疗指南

中华医学会器官移植学分会, 管瑀, 林俊, 等. 中国肾脏移植受者尿路感染临床诊疗指南[J]. 器官移植. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024140
引用本文: 中华医学会器官移植学分会, 管瑀, 林俊, 等. 中国肾脏移植受者尿路感染临床诊疗指南[J]. 器官移植. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024140
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, , , et al. Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients in China[J]. ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024140
Citation: Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, , , et al. Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients in China[J]. ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024140

中国肾脏移植受者尿路感染临床诊疗指南

doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024140
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(82000712);北京市自然科学基金(7192043)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    林俊,Email:bfhlinjun@hotmail.com

    薛武军,Email:xwujun126@xjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: R617, R691

Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients in China

More Information
  • 摘要: 尿路感染是肾脏移植术后最常见的感染性并发症。为了进一步降低肾脏移植术后受者尿路感染的发生率,提高中国肾脏移植术后受者尿路感染的诊疗水平,减缓细菌耐药性的发展并保证受者用药安全和有效性,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织肾脏移植专家和感染性疾病专家,结合我国肾脏移植术后尿路感染的临床现状,并参考2022版《中国泌尿外科和男科疾病诊断治疗》和2019版《美国移植学会感染性疾病实践指南中实体器官移植受者的尿路感染》,从肾脏移植术后尿路感染的临床分类和定义、流行病学和病因学、诊断和治疗等方面,制定《中国肾脏移植受者尿路感染临床诊疗指南》。

     

  • 表  1  证据质量与推荐强度分级

    Table  1.   Level of evidence and recommended strength grades

    推荐强度 证据等级 描述
    A 1a RCT的系统评价
    1b 结果可信区间小的RCT
    1c 显示“全或无效应”的任何证据
    B 2a 队列研究的系统评价
    2b 单个队列研究(包括低质量的RCT,如失访率>20%者)
    2c 基于受者结局的研究
    3a 病例对照研究的系统评价
    3b 单个病例对照研究
    C 4 病例系列报告、低质量队列研究和低质量病例对照研究
    D 5 专家意见(即无临床研究支持的仅依据基础研究或临床经验的推测)
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] HOLLYER I, ISON MG. The challenge of urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients[J]. Transpl Infect Dis, 2018, 20(2): e12828. DOI: 10.1111/tid.12828.
    [2] ALANGADEN GJ, THYAGARAJAN R, GRUBER SA, et al. Infectious complications after kidney transplantation: current epidemiology and associated risk factors[J]. Clin Transplant, 2006, 20(4): 401-409. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2006.00519.x.
    [3] ALANGADEN G. Urinary tract infections in renal transplant recipients[J]. Curr Infect Dis Rep, 2007, 9(6): 475-479. DOI: 10.1007/s11908-007-0072-6.
    [4] MEENA P, BHARGAVA V, RANA DS, et al. Urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipient: a clinical comprehensive review[J]. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2021, 32(2): 307-317. DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.335441.
    [5] LIM JH, CHO JH, LEE JH, et al. Risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients[J]. Transplant Proc, 2013, 45(4): 1584-1589. DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2012.12.011.
    [6] CHUANG P, PARIKH CR, LANGONE A. Urinary tract infections after renal transplantation: a retrospective review at two US transplant centers[J]. Clin Transplant, 2005, 19(2): 230-235. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2005.00327.x.
    [7] ARIZA-HEREDIA EJ, BEAM EN, LESNICK TG, et al. Urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients: role of gender, urologic abnormalities, and antimicrobial prophylaxis[J]. Ann Transplant, 2013, 18: 195-204. DOI: 10.12659/AOT.883901.
    [8] HOSSEINPOUR M, PEZESHGI A, MAHDIABADI MZ, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary tract infection in kidney recipients: a meta-analysis study[J]. BMC Nephrol, 2023, 24(1): 284. DOI: 10.1186/s12882-023-03338-4.
    [9] MUÑOZ P. Management of urinary tract infections and lymphocele in renal transplant recipients[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2001, 33(Suppl 1): S53-S57. DOI: 10.1086/320905.
    [10] HOOTON TM, BRADLEY SF, CARDENAS DD, et al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2010, 50(5): 625-663. DOI: 10.1086/650482.
    [11] VIDAL E, CERVERA C, CORDERO E, et al. Management of urinary tract infection in solid organ transplant recipients: consensus statement of the Group for the Study of Infection in Transplant Recipients (GESITRA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) and the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) [J]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin, 2015, 33(10): 679. e1-679. e21. DOI: 10.1016/j.eimc.2015.03.024.
    [12] RUBIN RH, SHAPIRO ED, ANDRIOLE VT, et al. Evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of urinary tract infection. Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Food and Drug Administration[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 1992, 15(Suppl 1): S216-S227. DOI: 10.1093/clind/15.supplement_1.s216.
    [13] SAFDAR N, SLATTERY WR, KNASINSKI V, et al. Predictors and outcomes of candiduria in renal transplant recipients[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2005, 40(10): 1413-1421. DOI: 10.1086/429620.
    [14] SUÁREZ FERNÁNDEZ ML, RIDAO CANO N, ÁLVAREZ SANTAMARTA L, et al. A current review of the etiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of urinary tract infection in renal transplant patients[J]. Diagnostics, 2021, 11(8): 1456. DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11081456.
    [15] GOZDOWSKA J, CZERWIŃSKA M, CHABROS Ł, et al. Urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients hospitalized at a transplantation and nephrology ward: 1-year follow-up[J]. Transplant Proc, 2016, 48(5): 1580-1589. DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2016.01.061.
    [16] GERBER L, GASPERT A, BRAGHETTI A, et al. Ureaplasma and mycoplasma in kidney allograft recipients-a case series and review of the literature[J]. Transpl Infect Dis, 2018, 20(5): e12937. DOI: 10.1111/tid.12937.
    [17] SILVA M JR, MARRA AR, PEREIRA CA, et al. Bloodstream infection after kidney transplantation: epidemiology, microbiology, associated risk factors, and outcome[J]. Transplantation, 2010, 90(5): 581-587. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181e8a680.
    [18] LINARES L, CERVERA C, COFÁN F, et al. Epidemiology and outcomes of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection in renal transplantation[J]. Transplant Proc, 2007, 39(7): 2222-2224. DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.06.061.
    [19] PINHEIRO HS, MITUIASSU AM, CARMINATTI M, et al. Urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in kidney transplant patients[J]. Transplant Proc, 2010, 42(2): 486-487. DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2010.02.002.
    [20] BODRO M, SANCLEMENTE G, LIPPERHEIDE I, et al. Impact of antibiotic resistance on the development of recurrent and relapsing symptomatic urinary tract infection in kidney recipients[J]. Am J Transplant, 2015, 15(4): 1021-1027. DOI: 10.1111/ajt.13075.
    [21] WEINER LM, WEBB AK, LIMBAGO B, et al. Antimicrobial-resistant pathogens associated with healthcare-associated infections: summary of data reported to the national healthcare safety network at the centers for disease control and prevention, 2011-2014[J]. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2016, 37(11): 1288-1301. DOI: 10.1017/ice.2016.174.
    [22] VEROUX M, GIUFFRIDA G, CORONA D, et al. Infective complications in renal allograft recipients: epidemiology and outcome[J]. Transplant Proc, 2008, 40(6): 1873-1876. DOI: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.05.065.
    [23] BRENNAN DC, DALLER JA, LAKE KD, et al. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin versus basiliximab in renal transplantation[J]. N Engl J Med, 2006, 355(19): 1967-1977. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa060068.
    [24] FAYEK SA, KEENAN J, HARIRIAN A, et al. Ureteral stents are associated with reduced risk of ureteral complications after kidney transplantation: a large single center experience[J]. Transplantation, 2012, 93(3): 304-308. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0b013e31823ec081.
    [25] THOMPSON ER, HOSGOOD SA, NICHOLSON ML, et al. Early versus late ureteric stent removal after kidney transplantation[J]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018, 1(1): CD011455. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011455.pub2.
    [26] ELIACIK K, KANIK A, YAVASCAN O, et al. A comparison of bladder catheterization and suprapubic aspiration methods for urine sample collection from infants with a suspected urinary tract infection[J]. Clin Pediatr, 2016, 55(9): 819-824. DOI: 10.1177/0009922815608278.
    [27] LAROCCO MT, FRANEK J, LEIBACH EK, et al. Effectiveness of preanalytic practices on contamination and diagnostic accuracy of urine cultures: a laboratory medicine best practices systematic review and meta-analysis[J]. Clin Microbiol Rev, 2016, 29(1): 105-147. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00030-15.
    [28] DUAN W, YANG Y, ZHAO J, et al. Application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients[J]. Front Public Health, 2022, 10: 901549. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.901549.
    [29] JIA K, HUANG S, SHEN C, et al. Enhancing urinary tract infection diagnosis for negative culture patients with metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS)[J]. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2023, 13: 1119020. DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2023.1119020.
    [30] MORAND A, CORNU F, DUFOUR JC, et al. Human bacterial repertoire of the urinary tract: a potential paradigm shift[J]. J Clin Microbiol, 2019, 57(3): e00675-e00618. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00675-18.
    [31] SATHIANANTHAMOORTHY S, MALONE-LEE J, GILL K, et al. Reassessment of routine midstream culture in diagnosis of urinary tract infection[J]. J Clin Microbiol, 2019, 57(3): e01452-e01418. DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01452-18.
    [32] GREEN H, RAHAMIMOV R, GOLDBERG E, et al. Consequences of treated versus untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in the first year following kidney transplantation: retrospective observational study[J]. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2013, 32(1): 127-131. DOI: 10.1007/s10096-012-1727-2.
    [33] FIORANTE S, LÓPEZ-MEDRANO F, LIZASOAIN M, et al. Systematic screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients[J]. Kidney Int, 2010, 78(8): 774-781. DOI: 10.1038/ki.2010.286.
    [34] COUSSEMENT J, KAMINSKI H, SCEMLA A, et al. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients[J]. Curr Opin Infect Dis, 2020, 33(6): 419-425. DOI: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000678.
    [35] EL AMARI EB, HADAYA K, BÜHLER L, et al. Outcome of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients[J]. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2011, 26(12): 4109-4014. DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfr198.
    [36] MORADI M, ABBASI M, MORADI A, et al. Effect of antibiotic therapy on asymptomatic bacteriuria in kidney transplant recipients[J]. Urol J, 2005, 2(1): 32-35.
    [37] RAO Z, WANG Z, TANG M, et al. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria after kidney transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials[J]. Medicina, 2023, 59(9): 1600. DOI: 10.3390/medicina59091600.
    [38] American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. American geriatrics society 2015 updated beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults[J]. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2015, 63(11): 2227-2246. DOI: 10.1111/jgs.13702.
    [39] AL MOHAJER M, MUSHER DM, MINARD CG, et al. Clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria at a tertiary care hospital[J]. Scand J Infect Dis, 2013, 45(9): 688-695. DOI: 10.3109/00365548.2013.803291.
    [40] MITRA S, ALANGADEN GJ. Recurrent urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients[J]. Curr Infect Dis Rep, 2011, 13(6): 579-587. DOI: 10.1007/s11908-011-0210-z.
    [41] VAN DUIN D, LOK JJ, EARLEY M, et al. Colistin versus ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2018, 66(2): 163-171. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix783.
    [42] RAZ R, STAMM WE. A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections[J]. N Engl J Med, 1993, 329(11): 753-756. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199309093291102.
    [43] BEEREPOOT MA, TER RIET G, NYS S, et al. Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women[J]. Arch Intern Med, 2012, 172(9): 704-712. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.777.
    [44] LEE BS, BHUTA T, SIMPSON JM, et al. Methenamine hippurate for preventing urinary tract infections[J]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012, 10(10): CD003265. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003265.pub3.
    [45] JORGENSON MR, DESCOUROUEZ JL, SIODLAK M, et al. Efficacy and safety of probiotics and synbiotics in liver transplantation[J]. Pharmacotherapy, 2018, 38(7): 758-768. DOI: 10.1002/phar.2130.
    [46] GRIN PM, KOWALEWSKA PM, ALHAZZAN W, et al. Lactobacillus for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in women: meta-analysis[J]. Can J Urol, 2013, 20(1): 6607-6614.
    [47] STAPLETON AE, AU-YEUNG M, HOOTON TM, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2011, 52(10): 1212-1217. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir183.
    [48] HOLLYER I, VARIAS F, HO B, et al. Safety and efficacy of methenamine hippurate for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in adult renal transplant recipients: a single center, retrospective study[J]. Transpl Infect Dis, 2019, 21(3): e13063. DOI: 10.1111/tid.13063.
    [49] JEPSON RG, WILLIAMS G, CRAIG JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections[J]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012, 10(10): CD001321. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001321.pub5.
    [50] HAIDAR G, PHILIPS NJ, SHIELDS RK, et al. Ceftolozane-tazobactam for the treatment of multidrug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: clinical effectiveness and evolution of resistance[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2017, 65(1): 110-120. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix182.
    [51] SHIELDS RK, POTOSKI BA, HAIDAR G, et al. Clinical outcomes, drug toxicity, and emergence of ceftazidime-avibactam resistance among patients treated for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections[J]. Clin Infect Dis, 2016, 63(12): 1615-1618. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciw636.
    [52] SUN D, RUBIO-APARICIO D, NELSON K, et al. Meropenem-vaborbactam resistance selection, resistance prevention, and molecular mechanisms in mutants of KPC-producing klebsiella pneumoniae[J]. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 2017, 61(12): e01694-e01617. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01694-17.
    [53] TEN DOESSCHATE T, VAN WERKHOVEN H, MEIJVIS S, et al. Fosfomycin-trometamol for urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients[J]. Transplantation, 2019, 103(6): 1272-1276. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0000000000002427.
    [54] CERVERA C, VAN DELDEN C, GAVALDÀ J, et al. Multidrug-resistant bacteria in solid organ transplant recipients[J]. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2014, 20(Suppl 7): 49-73. DOI: 10.1111/1469-0691.12687.
    [55] ALVAREZ-LERMA F, NOLLA-SALAS J, LEÓN C, et al. Candiduria in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care medical units[J]. Intensive Care Med, 2003, 29(7): 1069-1076. DOI: 10.1007/s00134-003-1807-y.
    [56] RICHARDS MJ, EDWARDS JR, CULVER DH, et al. Nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care units in the United States. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System[J]. Pediatrics, 1999, 103(4): e39. DOI: 10.1542/peds.103.4.e39.
    [57] HE Z, HUO X, LEI D, et al. Management of candiduria in hospitalized patients: a single-center study on the implementation of IDSA guidelines and factors affecting clinical decisions[J]. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2021, 40(1): 59-65. DOI: 10.1007/s10096-020-03999-1.
    [58] FISCHER SA, LU K. Screening of donor and recipient in solid organ transplantation[J]. Am J Transplant, 2013, 13(Suppl 4): 9-21. DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12094.
    [59] ISON MG, GROSSI P. Donor-derived infections in solid organ transplantation[J]. Am J Transplant, 2013, 13(Suppl 4): 22-30. DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12095.
    [60] BRATZLER DW, DELLINGER EP, OLSEN KM, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery[J]. Surg Infect, 2013, 14(1): 73-156. DOI: 10.1089/sur.2013.9999.
    [61] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Transmission of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli through kidney transplantation --- California and Texas, 2009[J]. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2010, 59(50): 1642-1646.
    [62] MULARONI A, BERTANI A, VIZZINI G, et al. Outcome of transplantation using organs from donors infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria[J]. Am J Transplant, 2015, 15(10): 2674-2682. DOI: 10.1111/ajt.13317.
    [63] LEN O, GARZONI C, LUMBRERAS C, et al. Recommendations for screening of donor and recipient prior to solid organ transplantation and to minimize transmission of donor-derived infections[J]. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2014, 20(Suppl 7): 10-18. DOI: 10.1111/1469-0691.12557.
    [64] SIFRI CD, ISON MG. Highly resistant bacteria and donor-derived infections: treading in uncharted territory[J]. Transpl Infect Dis, 2012, 14(3): 223-228. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00752.x.
    [65] BISHARA J, GOLDBERG E, LEV S, et al. The utilization of solid organs for transplantation in the setting of infection with multidrug-resistant organisms: an expert opinion[J]. Clin Transplant, 2012, 26(6): 811-815. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2012.01693.x.
    [66] BERTRAND D, PALLET N, SARTORIUS A, et al. Clinical and microbial impact of screening kidney allograft preservative solution for bacterial contamination with high-sensitivity methods[J]. Transpl Int, 2013, 26(8): 795-799. DOI: 10.1111/tri.12130.
    [67] LIANG H, ZHANG P, YU B, et al. Machine perfusion combined with antibiotics prevents donor-derived infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria[J]. Am J Transplant, 2022, 22(7): 1791-1803. DOI: 10.1111/ajt.17032.
    [68] MARTIN SI, FISHMAN JA. Pneumocystis pneumonia in solid organ transplantation[J]. Am J Transplant, 2013, 13(Suppl 4): 272-279. DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12119.
    [69] FOX BC, SOLLINGER HW, BELZER FO, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of infection in renal transplantation: clinical efficacy, absorption of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, effects on the microflora, and the cost-benefit of prophylaxis[J]. Am J Med, 1990, 89(3): 255-274. DOI: 10.1016/0002-9343(90)90337-d.
    [70] HIBBERD PL, TOLKOFF-RUBIN NE, DORAN M, et al. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with ciprofloxacin for the prevention of urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients. a double-blind, randomized controlled trial[J]. Online J Curr Clin Trials, 1992.
    [71] RAFAT C, VIMONT S, ANCEL PY, et al. Ofloxacin: new applications for the prevention of urinary tract infections in renal graft recipients[J]. Transpl Infect Dis, 2011, 13(4): 344-352. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2011.00602.x.
    [72] WOJCIECHOWSKI D, CHANDRAN S. Effect of ciprofloxacin combined with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim prophylaxis on the incidence of urinary tract infections after kidney transplantation[J]. Transplantation, 2013, 96(4): 400-405. DOI: 10.1097/TP.0b013e3182962cab.
    [73] KHORVASH F, MORTAZAVI M, HAKAMIFARD A, et al. Comparison of the effect of co-trimoxazole and co-trimoxazole plus ciprofloxacin in urinary tract infection prophylaxis in kidney transplant patients[J]. Adv Biomed Res, 2016, 5: 108. DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.183669.
    [74] MANGUS RS, HAAG BW. Stented versus nonstented extravesical ureteroneocystostomy in renal transplantation: a metaanalysis[J]. Am J Transplant, 2004, 4(11): 1889-1896. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00595.x.
    [75] WILSON CH, RIX DA, MANAS DM. Routine intraoperative ureteric stenting for kidney transplant recipients[J]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2013(6): CD004925. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004925.pub3.
  • 加载中
表(1)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  37
  • HTML全文浏览量:  12
  • PDF下载量:  12
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2024-05-06
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-31

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回