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Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients in China
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, Branch of Kidney Transplantation of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care,
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024156
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Delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients is one of the common early complications after kidney transplantation, which is an independent risk factor affecting the short-term and long-term survival of renal allografts. Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association and Branch of Kidney Transplantation of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care organized well-known Chinese experts in organ transplantation and related disciplines to formulate and discuss the determination of the scope and clinical problems, evidence retrieval and screening, and the formation of recommendations based on “Technical Specification for the Diagnosis and Treatment on Delayed Graft Function After Renal Transplantation (2019 edition)”. After two rounds of collective examination and approval by Chinese Medical Association and China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care, “Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Delayed Graft Function in Kidney Transplant Recipients in China was finally formulated. This guideline puts forward recommendations and explanations regarding 21 clinical problems including the concept, mechanism, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and application of immunosuppressive drugs for delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients, aiming to standardize the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients, enhance clinical efficacy of kidney transplantation, prolong short-term and long-term survival of kidney transplant recipients and renal allografts and promote the development of the discipline of transplantation.
Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in kidney transplant recipients
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024142
Abstract(9) HTML(6) PDF 719KB(0)
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In recent years, the infection of nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) has been increasing rapidly, which captivates widespread attention. The infection rate of NTM in kidney transplant recipients is more significantly elevated due to the impact of immunosuppressive drugs and other factors. However, due to the lack of sufficient research evidence, relevant guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of NTM after kidney transplantation are still lacking. To further standardize the diagnosis and treatment of NTM disease in kidney transplant recipients, and deepen medical practitioners' understanding and diagnosis and treatment of NTM disease in organ transplantation in China, Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association organized relevant experts to formulate this guideline by referring to the latest edition of “An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases”, “Expert Consensus on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease”, and “Technical Specification for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Organ Transplant Recipients (2019 Edition) ”, and considering the characteristics of kidney transplant recipients.
Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients in China
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association,
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024140
Abstract(31) HTML(12) PDF 679KB(7)
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Urinary tract infection is the most common infectious complication after kidney transplantation. To further reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation, improve the diagnosis and treatment level of urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation in China, prevent the development of bacterial drug resistance and ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug use, Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association organized experts in the fields of kidney transplantation and infectious diseases to consider clinical status of urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation in China, refer to “Diagnosis and Treatment of Urological and Andrological Diseases in China (2022 edition)” and “Urinary Tract Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in American Society of Transplantation Practical Guidelines for Infectious Diseases (2019 edition) ”, and formulate “Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients in China” from the perspectives of clinical classification and definition, epidemiology and etiology, diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation, respectively.
Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of combined liver and kidney transplantation
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association,
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024129
Abstract(20) HTML(11) PDF 732KB(0)
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Combined liver and kidney transplantation has been steadily applied in major transplantation centers, saving the lives of many patients with end-stage liver and renal failure. However, there are still multiple unresolved problems in the clinical diagnosis, treatment and long-term prognosis of combined liver and kidney transplantation. By referring to "Technical Operating Standards for Combined Liver and Kidney Transplantation (2019 Edition)" and the latest published literature and guidelines at home and abroad, "Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Combined Liver and Kidney Transplantation" was formulated. Recommendations and suggestions were delivered regarding the surgical indications and contraindications, preoperative preparation and evaluation, the timing of transplantation for end-stage liver and kidney diseases, the selection of surgical approaches and postoperative follow-up, specific pathophysiology, surgical techniques, complication management and immunosuppressive treatment of combined live and kidney transplantation, aiming to enhance the utilization rate of grafts and improve the survival and prognosis of combined liver and kidney transplant recipients.
Clinical diagnosis and treatment guidelines for long-term systemic complications in kidney transplant recipients in China
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association,
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024127
Abstract(28) HTML(7) PDF 831KB(20)
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In order to further standardize the diagnosis and treatment of long-term systemic complications in kidney transplant recipients, Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association initiated the formulation of ‘Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Long-term Systemic Complications in Kidney Transplant recipients in China’. Experts on organ transplantation were organized to summarize and integrate the latest progress in this field based on existing clinical guidelines, systematic evaluations, case studies, expert consensus. The guideline was formed after multiple rounds of discussion and reaching a consensus which included complications of hematological system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, ocular, cutaneous and osteoporosis disorders. The full text focuses on 27 clinical problems and forms 40 recommendations, mainly involving the risk factors, classification, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various complications. This guideline graded the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendation for each clinical issue using 2009 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Grading and Strength of Recommendation criteria, so as to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of late complications, comprehensively improve the management capacity of clinicians to benefit kidney transplant recipients.
Guidelines for clinical diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in kidney transplant recipients in China
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association,
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024116
Abstract(24) HTML(4) PDF 962KB(9)
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To further standardize the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension after kidney transplantation in China, Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association organized experts in kidney transplantation and cardiovascular diseases to formulate ‘Guidelines for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Hypertension in Kidney Transplant Recipients in China’ based on ‘Diagnosis and Treatment Specification for Hypertension after Solid Organ Transplantation in China (2019 edition)’ in combination with clinical status of hypertension after organ transplantation in China, and referring to the latest guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension at home and abroad. This guideline was formulated to provide theoretical reference for medical practitioners in the field of kidney transplantation in China, aiming to better control adult hypertension after kidney transplantation, mitigate adverse outcomes and improve the quality of life.
Clinical diagnosis and treatment guidelines for digestive system complications in kidney transplant recipients in China
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association,
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024126
Abstract(27) HTML(16) PDF 724KB(11)
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The diagnosis and treatment of digestive system complications of kidney transplant recipients is related to the long-term survival and quality of life, which needs great attention. In order to further standardize its diagnosis and treatment, Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association initiated the formulation of ‘Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Digestive System Complications of Kidney Transplant Recipients in China’, and organized experts in organ transplantation and related disciplines to summarize the new progress in diagnosis and treatment of digestive system complications of kidney transplant recipients at home and abroad in recent years based on existing clinical research, systematic evaluation, case study, expert consensus and existing guidelines, and reached a consensus after many discussions. This paper focuses on 11 clinical problems, forming 16 recommendations, and grading the evidence quality and recommendation strength of each clinical problem by the evidence grading and recommendation strength standard of Oxford University Evidence-based Medicine Center in 2009, in order to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of digestive system complications of kidney transplant recipients, comprehensively improve the management ability of digestive system complications of clinicians in an all-round way and benefit transplant recipients.
Management of immunosuppressive drugs in HIV-positive solid organ transplant recipients
Shao Kun, Wang Xianghui, Zhou Peijun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024009
Abstract(24) HTML(11) PDF 558KB(2)
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The application of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly prolonged the life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, viral infection and adverse reactions of cART drugs make patients more prone to organ failure. Solid organ transplantation (SOT) has become a standard treatment for HIV-infected patients with end-stage organ failure. Nevertheless, among HIV-positive SOT recipients, multiple problems remain to be resolved, such as increased incidence of graft rejection, increased infection risk, drug toxicity and drug interaction between cART therapy and immunosuppressive drugs, etc. It is extremely challenging to deliver appropriate management for HIV-positive SOT recipients. Therefore, the application of immune induction therapy, calcineurin inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and other immunosuppressive drugs in HIV-positive SOT recipients was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for subsequent related studies.
Hypomagnesemia and kidney transplantation: research progress in immune effect and infection risk
Hu Yao, Liu Ling
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024029
Abstract(18) HTML(12) PDF 504KB(0)
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As a cation with abundant intracellular contents and extensive functions, magnesium plays an active role in immune function and captivates widespread attention. Under the influence of multiple factors, such as use of calcineurin inhibitors, hypomagnesemia post-kidney transplantation is not uncommon. Infection is a common complication post-kidney transplantation and one of the main causes of death of kidney transplant recipients. Recent clinical studies have shown that hypomagnesemia post-kidney transplantation is closely associated with the risk of infection post-transplantation. Emphasizing and monitoring magnesium concentration in kidney transplant recipients may help prevent infection and improve clinical prognosis of both recipients and grafts. Therefore, research progress in magnesium and immune response, the causes of hypomagnesemia post-kidney transplantation and hypomagnesemia and infection post-kidney transplantation was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of infection post-kidney transplantation.
Optimization of immunosuppressive regimen for kidney transplant recipients
Dong Zhen, Wang Hongyang
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024087
Abstract(42) HTML(14) PDF 1599KB(6)
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With the maturity and development of surgical techniques, as well as the improvement of perioperative management level, the success rate of kidney transplantation has been significantly improved. However, due to evident differences in heredity and antigenicity between donors and recipients, rejection will occur after kidney transplantation, which will affect the survival of renal grafts. Immunosuppression is an important treatment for rejection, which is of significance to reduce the risk of rejection and enhance graft survival rate. Nevertheless, immunosuppressants may cause multiple complications while lowering the incidence of rejection, such as infection, cardiovascular diseases and tumors, etc., which seriously affect the quality of life of patients and may even lead to their death. Reasonable selection of immunosuppressants and continuous optimization of immunosuppressive regimen for recipients play a critical role in improving the survival of recipients and renal grafts. In this article, the development history of organ transplantation, immune induction therapy and immune maintenance therapy was reviewed, and the progress in the optimization of immunosuppressive regimens for kidney transplant recipients was discussed, aiming to provide reference for improving clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients.
Development course and research status of incisions in lung transplantation
Xu Jian, Shao Jingbo, Chen Yuan, Wei Dong, Ye Shugao, Chen Jingyu
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024048
Abstract(29) HTML(17) PDF 658KB(0)
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Surgical technique of lung transplantation exerts significant impact on clinical prognosis of the recipients. Choosing an appropriate surgical incision determines the exposure of intraoperative visual field, which is the first step of surgical success and directly affects subsequent surgical procedures. Lung transplantation incision is usually considered as primary closure. Nevertheless, for patients with high-risk factors such as oversized lung allografts and primary graft failure after lung transplantation, primary closure cannot be achieved. Hence, delayed chest closure is an effective strategy. The selection of incisions and the adoption of delayed chest closure of lung transplantation exert profound impact upon perioperative prognosis, long-term quality of life and surgical complications of the recipients. Therefore, the development and research status of Clamshell incision, anterolateral incision, posterolateral incision and median sternal incision in lung transplantation were reviewed, highlighting the effect of incision patterns on clinical prognosis of lung transplantation and providing reference for the selection of incisions in clinical lung transplantation.
Clinical characteristics and risk factors of 209 cases of urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation
Wang Peiyu, Ding Handong, Zhong Jinbiao, Liao Guiyi, Liang Chaozhao
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024095
Abstract(33) HTML(9) PDF 548KB(0)
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  Objective  To investigate clinical characteristics and risk factors of different stages of urinary tract infection after kidney transplantation.   Methods  Clinical data of 209 kidney transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. According to time points of postoperative follow-up, all recipients were divided into 3 stages: within 1 month post-kidney transplantation, 1-6 months post-kidney transplantation, and 7-12 months post-kidney transplantation. The incidence of urinary tract infection, urine culture results of recipients with urinary tract infection and drug resistance characteristics of common pathogens during different stages after kidney transplantation were analyzed. The strains of patients with recurrent urinary tract infection were identified. The risk factors of urinary tract infection and the effect of urinary tract infection on renal allograft function were analyzed.   Results  The urinary tract infection rate was 90.0% in the first stage, 49.3% in the second stage and 22.5% in the third stage. The urinary tract infection rates of male recipients undergoing living-related organ donation in the second and third stages were lower than those of female recipients (both P<0.05). Urine culture test yielded positive results in 60 cases, and 84 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected, mainly Gram-negative bacteria, among which Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for the highest proportion. Sixty-six recipients had recurrent urinary tract infection, and the detected pathogens included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Candida glabrata, etc. Univariate analysis showed that postoperative use of antithymocyte globulin was the risk factor for urinary tract infection in the first stage. Preoperative urinary tract infection and donor type were the risk factors for urinary tract infection in the second stage. Gender and age of the recipients were the risk factors for urinary tract infection in the third stage. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative use of antithymocyte globulin was the risk factor for urinary tract infection in the first stage. Gender and age of the recipients were the risk factors for urinary tract infection in the third stage (all P<0.05). In the third stage, 65 cases were cured and 38 cases were not cured. There were no significant differences in serum creatinine level and white blood cell count in the untreated recipients before and after corresponding treatment (both P<0.05).   Conclusions  Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogens of urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients, and drug resistance is relatively high. Postoperative use of antithymocyte globulin, female and old age are the risk factors for urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients.
Effect of preoperative metabolic syndrome on early function of renal allografts in kidney transplant recipients
Tang Yongbin, Tian Zijian, Zhang Zhipeng, Wang Jinfu, Liu Ming, Zhang Yaqun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024045
Abstract(19) HTML(12) PDF 540KB(3)
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  Objective  To evaluate the effect of preoperative metabolic syndrome on early function of renal allografts in allogeneic kidney transplant recipients.   Methods  Clinical data of 117 allogeneic kidney transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed. According to the renal allograft function, they were divided into the delayed graft function (DGF) group (n=29) and non-DGF group (n=88). Relevant risk factors of DGF in recipients undergoing allogeneic kidney transplantation were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. The effect of preoperative metabolic syndrome on early function of renal allografts was analyzed.   Results  Among 117 kidney transplant recipients, 47 cases were complicated with preoperative metabolic syndrome, and 29 cases developed postoperative DGF. In the DGF group, 83% of the recipients were complicated with preoperative metabolic syndrome, higher than 74% in the non-DGF group (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that the body mass index (BMI) and terminal serum creatinine (Scr) level of the donors, and BMI, blood glucose level, triglyceride level and the proportion of preoperative metabolic syndrome of the recipients in the DGF group were higher than those in the non-DGF group (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high Scr levels of the donors, high hemoglobin levels of the recipients and preoperative metabolic syndrome of the recipients were the independent risk factors for DGF after kidney transplantation (all P<0.05).   Conclusions  Preoperative metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for DGF in allogeneic kidney transplant recipients. Corresponding measures should be taken to lower the incidence of DGF and other metabolic complications.
Exploratory road of liver xenotransplantation: from scientific research to clinical application
Li Xiao, Cao Weiwei, Yu Liang
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024043
Abstract(35) HTML(20) PDF 581KB(1)
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With the advancement of surgical technologies and the improvement of perioperative management, the survival rates of organ transplant recipients and grafts have been significantly elevated. Shortage of donor organs has become the main obstacle to further development of organ transplantation. Recently, kidney and heart xenotransplantation with genetically modified pigs as donors have entered clinical trials and achieved favorable results. Xenotransplantation has repeatedly become a hot spot in biomedical research. Compared with heart and kidney, the survival time of liver grafts from genetically modified pigs in non-human primates is shorter. Besides, experimental results are dramatically different. Hence, it is not eligible for clinical trials. Consequently, recent research progress in xenotransplantation was reviewed from surgical pattern selection, coagulation dysfunction and acute vascular rejection, advances in liver xenotransplantation were summarized, and the main problems hindering xenotransplantation from entering clinical trials and potential solutions were illustrated, aiming to provide reference for xenotransplantation from scientific research to clinical application.
Research progress in tolerogenic dendritic cells in immune tolerance of liver transplantation
Yang Zhiqi, Li Minghao
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024039
Abstract(47) HTML(14) PDF 725KB(7)
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Rejection after liver transplantation severely affects the survival of recipients. Long-term use of immunosuppressants is an important approach to prevent rejection, whereas it may cause toxic effects and increase the risk of adverse events such as systemic infection and tumor recurrence, etc. Therefore, before successful liver transplantation, how to induce individual immune tolerance of recipients and achieve complete or early withdrawal of postoperative immunosuppressants remains to be investigated by practitioners of organ transplantation. In recent years, certain progresses have been made in the mechanism of immune tolerance induced by tolerogenic dendritic cells in liver transplantation, and preliminary outcomes have been obtained in clinical trials. In this article, basic research and clinical application progress in the characteristics of tolerogenic dendritic cells, the mechanism underlying participating in liver immune microenvironment remodeling, and inducing immune tolerance in liver transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the application of tolerogenic dendritic cells in immune tolerance of liver transplantation.
Study of adverse drug events related to tacrolimus in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients based on FEARS database
Dong Boqing, Wang Jingwen, Bi Huanjing, Chen Zuhan, Lu Cuinan, Xue Wujun, Li Yang, Ding Xiaoming
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024031
Abstract(34) HTML(8) PDF 1875KB(2)
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  Objective  To investigate the characteristics of adverse drug events (ADEs) related to tacrolimus (Tac) in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.   Methods  The data were retrieved from Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database from the first quarter of 2004 to the second quarter of 2023. The ADEs data of pediatric organ transplant recipients with Tac as the primary suspected drug were extracted. The relationship between Tac and ADEs was quantitatively analyzed by proportional imbalance method. Basic characteristics and signal strength of ADEs related to Tac were analyzed. ADEs related to Tac in children of different ages and different types of organ transplantation were analyzed.   Results  A total of 1 443 children's ADEs reports involving Tac were screened, including 188 cases (13.0%) of heart transplantation, 668 cases (46.3%) of liver transplantation, 531 cases (36.8%) of kidney transplantation and 56 cases (3.9%) of lung transplantation. The median age of children was 10 years old. The top three countries with ADEs reporting were the United States, France and the United Kingdom. China reported 26 cases, accounting for 1.8%. Infection and infectious diseases accounted for the highest proportion (21.0%) in ADEs related to Tac, including EB virus and cytomegalovirus infection, etc. Infection and infectious diseases occupied the largest proportion of ADE related to Tac in children of different ages, whereas the pathogen types were different. Rejection, unstable immunosuppression level and renal function damage were also common ADEs related to Tac in children of all ages. Nervous system disease was the main ADE in heart transplant recipients, while infection and infectious diseases were more common in liver and kidney transplant recipients. Rejection was the most common ADE in lung transplant recipients.   Conclusions  ADEs related to Tac possess different distribution characteristics in different types of organ transplantation. Extensive attention should be paid to individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment in pediatric organ transplant recipients, thereby optimizing Tac treatment and reducing the risk of ADEs.
Re-understanding of the clinical application value of dopamine in kidney transplantation
Zhong Yuqi, Wang Yuchen, Miao Yun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024030
Abstract(16) HTML(12) PDF 489KB(0)
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Dopamine is the precursor of biosynthesis of norepinephrine. Low-dose dopamine mainly excites dopamine receptors, which may dilate renal and mesenteric vessels, increase renal blood flow and improve the microcirculation. In recent years, low-dose dopamine has been widely applied in the field of kidney transplantation due to its vasoactive effect. However, with the development of evidence-based medicine, the role of dopamine in protecting the perfusion function of renal allograft in kidney transplantation has been questioned. Multiple studies have shown that dopamine brings no significant benefit to renal and cardiac function in kidney transplantation, exerts low pressor effect, and may even increase the risk of perioperative complications. Norepinephrine may be used as a safe substitute. In this article, recent progress in the effect of dopamine upon renal and cardiac function and hemodynamics during kidney transplantation was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for clinical application of dopamine in kidney transplantation.
Correlation between metabolic markers and blood lipid levels in kidney transplant recipients
Xu Yuan, Hou Shuang, Chen Qian, Niu Yulin, Li Haiyang
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024014
Abstract(28) HTML(33) PDF 1902KB(1)
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Objective To analyze the co-expressed genes in blood lipid metabolism, hyperlipidemia and tacrolimus metabolism and their correlation with blood lipid levels in kidney transplant recipients.   Methods  Co-expressed genes were screened from Comparative Toxicogenomic Database (CTD). Baseline data of 25 kidney transplant recipients were collected. The expression levels of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1(ABCA1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored high density lipoprotein binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) were measured. All recipients were followed up. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and tacrolimus blood concentration were collected at postoperative 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, and the incidence of hyperlipidemia in the recipients was analyzed. The correlation between ABCA1, GPIHBP1, PPAR-γ and clinical indexes was assessed. The diagnostic efficiency of related indexes for hyperlipidemia after kidney transplantation was evaluated.   Results  Three co-expressed genes including ABCA1, PPAR-γ and GPIHBP1 were screened. ABCA1 was positively correlated with cholesterol level at postoperative 6 months and tacrolimus blood concentration at postoperative 3 months, whereas negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose level at postoperative 3 months (all P<0.05). GPIHBP1 was negatively correlated with preoperative cholesterol and triglyceride levels, whereas positively correlated with tacrolimus blood concentration at postoperative 3 months (all P<0.05). PPAR-γ was negatively correlated with preoperative globulin and low-density lipoprotein levels (both P<0.05). ABCA1, GPIHBP1 and PPAR-γ combined with globulin and blood glucose level at postoperative 1 and 6 months after operation yielded high diagnostic efficiency for hypertriglyceridemia after kidney transplantation (AUC=0.9). ABCA1, GPIHBP1 and PPAR-γ combined with tacrolimus blood concentrations at postoperative 1 and 6 months and blood glucose level at postoperative 6 months had high diagnostic efficiency for hypercholesterolemia after kidney transplantation (AUC=0.931).   Conclusions  ABCA1, GPIHBP1 and PPAR-γ are correlated with blood lipid level and tacrolimus blood concentration after kidney transplantation to different degrees. No definite evidence has been supported for predicting hyperlipidemia after kidney transplantation. Immunity improvement and rational blood glucose management may be beneficial factors for hyperlipidemia control.
Evaluation of the predictive ability of individualized drug administration adjuvant decision-making system JPKD for tacrolimus blood concentration in kidney transplant recipients
Yan Hui, Wu Furong, Ji Peng, Shen Aizong, Zhang Shengyu
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024011
Abstract(21) HTML(9) PDF 547KB(0)
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  Objective  To evaluate the predictive ability and influencing factors of individualized drug administration adjuvant decision-making system Java PK® for Desktop (JPKD) for tacrolimus blood concentration in kidney transplant recipients.   Methods  The monitoring data of tacrolimus blood concentration from 149 recipients early after kidney transplantation were collected. The trough blood concentration of tacrolimus was predicted by JPKD. The absolute weighted deviation and relative prediction deviation between the actual and predicted concentration were calculated. The influencing factors of the absolute weighted deviation were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the predictive values of these influencing factors on the accuracy of software prediction were assessed by delineating the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.   Results  266 samples of tacrolimus blood concentration data were collected from 149 patients. The measured blood concentration of tacrolimus was (6.5±3.0) ng/mL (1.1-16.6 ng/mL), and the predicted value calculated by JPKD was (5.6±2.5) ng/mL (1.4-14.4 ng/mL). The absolute weighted deviation of the calculated data was 28.38%, and the relative prediction deviation was −13.55%. Univariate analysis showed that gender, albumin, changes in hematocrit, cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A5*3 genotype and C3435T genotype were associated with the inaccurate prediction results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that CYP3A5*3 genotype of AA and the changes in hematocrit were the independent risk factors affecting the accuracy of tacrolimus blood concentration predicted by JPKD. ROC curve analysis showed that when the changes in hematocrit exceeded 2.25%, the risk of inaccurate software prediction was increased.   Conclusions  JPKD possesses certain accuracy in predicting the blood concentration of tacrolimus in kidney transplant recipients, which may improve the qualified rate of tacrolimus blood concentration. Nevertheless, CYP3A5*3 genotype and the changes of hematocrit may affect the accuracy of predictions.
Abstract(133) HTML(123) PDF 0KB(48)
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Guideline and Consensus
Clinical diagnosis and treatment guidelines for cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplant recipients in China (2023 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, Branch of Organ Transplantation Physician of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Branch of Kidney Transplantation of China International Exchange and Promotive Association for Medical and Health Care,
2024, 15(3): 303-322.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024096
Abstract(377) HTML(93) PDF 1136KB()
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In recent years, there have been significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, including diagnostic method and anti-CMV drugs. These advancements have had a positive impact on the management of CMV infection in SOT recipients. To further standardize the management of CMV infection after kidney transplantation in China, Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association organized a multidisciplinary group of experts in relevant fields. They referred to the ‘Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Cytomegalovirus Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in China (2016 edition)’ and the latest published literature and guidelines, resulting in the development of the ‘Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines for Cytomegalovirus Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients in China (2023 edition)’. The updated guideline includes CMV epidemiology, research progress on the risk factors and universal prevention of CMV infection, the definition for CMV infection, detailed diagnostic criteria for CMV viremia and CMV disease, as well as an introduction to new anti-CMV drugs.
Guideline for clinical diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients in China (2023 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association,
2024, 15(3): 323-332.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024098
Abstract(148) HTML(49) PDF 616KB()
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This guideline aims to provide comprehensive and practical guidance for clinical management of tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients. First, it summarizes the particularity of tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients, and highlights the high incidence and diverse clinical manifestations. To better understand the patients' conditions, relevant assessment of tuberculosis is recommended before kidney transplantation. Extensive attention should be paid to the monitoring of tuberculosis after kidney transplantation. Regarding the diagnosis, the guideline explicitly introduces common diagnostic approaches for tuberculosis, and evaluates the applicability in kidney transplant recipients. After the diagnosis is confirmed, it discusses how to balance the treatment and rejection of tuberculosis under the background of immunosuppressants, and focuses upon the potential drug interaction. In terms of prevention, it emphasizes the screening of tuberculosis prior to kidney transplantation. This guideline is designed to deepen the understanding of medical staff for tuberculosis management in kidney transplant recipients, promote more effective clinical practice and improve the quality of life of the recipients.
Expert consensus on the use of hypoglycemic drugs in post transplantation diabetes mellitus (2024 edition)
Diabetology Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association, Chinese Diabetes Society, Diabetes Branch of Beijing Medical Association,
2024, 15(3): 333-351.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024111
Abstract(104) HTML(29) PDF 831KB()
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In recent years, increasing clinical evidence has been accumulated to support the diagnosis and treatment of post transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM), especially the advent of novel hypoglycemic drugs and glucose monitoring technologies, which further promotes the advancement of diagnosis and treatment of PTDM. To elaborate the use of hypoglycemic drugs in PTDM, Diabetology Committee of Chinese Research Hospital Association, Chinese Diabetes Society and Diabetes Branch of Beijing Medical Association jointly organized relevant experts to compile Expert consensus on the use of hypoglycemic drugs in post transplantation diabetes mellitus (2024 Edition), which mainly focuses on the hypoglycemic mechanism, recommended intensity, cautions in clinical application and the interaction with immunosuppressants, aiming to further enhance clinical management level for PTDM patients and improve clinical outcomes. The release of this expert consensus will contribute to standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment of PTDM.
Editorial
Hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients
Guo Fansheng, Zeng Qiang, Dou Jian
2024, 15(3): 352-358.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023216
Abstract(86) HTML(36) PDF 1628KB()
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Hepatitis E virus infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis. In recent years, the incidence of hepatitis E has shown an increasing trend, which has gradually become an important cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Age, sex, intensity of immunosuppression and socio-economic factors are all risk factors for hepatitis E virus infection. Liver transplant recipients require long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs for anti rejection treatment, prone to hepatitis E virus infection and at the risk of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis due to immunosuppression status. Therefore, special attention should be paid to liver transplant recipients in clinical practice. Meantime, related risk factors should be identified to assist diagnosis and take stricter preventive measures. According to literature review, the etiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus and the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients were reviewed, aiming to properly monitor, treat and prevent hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients in clinical practice, improving the prognosis of liver transplant recipients.
The question of death criteria in human organ donation
Yang Shunliang, Jiang Zhelong, Lyu Lizhi, Li Yushu, Wang Dong
2024, 15(3): 359-366.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024033
Abstract(171) HTML(48) PDF 1814KB()
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Donation after death is the most important ethical principle to carry out organ donation after citizens’ death. The newly-revised Regulations on Human Organ Donation and Transplantation does not define death, and avoids the key question of “whether to recognize brain death”. Certain legal risks or damages to the rights and interests of donors may exist in organ donation. Death is an inevitable part of human life. It is necessary to establish specific criteria, which is also the only approach, to define death in any era. Death criteria are established based on the view of death, and restricted by the development level of productive forces and other social factors. The determination of death criteria hugely varies between China and the West. To standardize organ donation and transplantation and promote high-quality development of organ donation, medical staff must adhere to the principle of pure motivation, take informed consents as the premise, respect the donors' and their close relatives' rights to choose their own death criteria, strictly follow the death judgment procedures and operating norms, and ensure the scientificity, accuracy and fairness of death determination.
Academic Summary
Summary of basic research on liver transplantation in China of 2023
Ye Xiaoyong, Zhou Lin, He Qiang
2024, 15(3): 367-376.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024060
Abstract(137) HTML(39) PDF 634KB()
Abstract:
Liver transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, which can significantly improve clinical prognosis and quality of life of patients. However, multiple challenges, such as rejection, immune tolerance, shortage of donor liver, preservation of donor liver, ischemia-reperfusion injury and postoperative complications, etc., limit the efficacy of liver transplantation in clinical practice. Research teams in China have made significant contributions to the basic research related to liver transplantation by making continuous efforts and combining the development of emerging technologies, interdisciplinary integration and other emerging fields. In this article, the frontier progress in the basic research of liver transplantation in 2023 was reviewed, highlighting the progress made by Chinese research teams in the basic research of liver transplantation, aiming to provide reference for promoting the integration of Chinese characteristics into the research of liver transplantation, accelerate the integration of Chinese liver transplantation research with international community, and promote further advancement of liver transplantation in China.
Highlights of clinical research on liver transplantation in China of 2023
Wang Fangfei, He Qiang
2024, 15(3): 377-382.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024063
Abstract(242) HTML(52) PDF 523KB()
Abstract:
As a mature organ transplantation, liver transplantation has become the optimal treatment for end-stage liver disease, which can improve the quality of life of recipients. However, liver transplantation still faces multiple challenges, such as rejection, infection, biliary complications, delayed graft function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation, kidney-related diseases after transplantation, and donor shortage, etc., which remain to be improved and urgently resolved. With persistent attempts and experience accumulated by Chinese experts and scholars, these problems related to liver transplantation have been gradually resolved year by year. In 2023, liver transplantation teams in China have achieved a series of significant progresses in the field of clinical research. In this article, clinical frontiers and novel technological progresses in the field of liver transplantation in 2023 were reviewed, and the achievements of clinical liver transplantation in China in 2023 were summarized, aiming to provide novel ideas for promoting further development of liver transplantation in China.
Research progress on domestic kidney transplantation of 2023
Zeng Xinyue, Zhou Wangtianxu, Sun Qiquan
2024, 15(3): 383-389.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024059
Abstract(176) HTML(64) PDF 549KB()
Abstract:
Kidney transplantation has achieved significant success in treating end-stage renal disease. Nevertheless, it still faces a series of complex and significant challenges after surgery, such as infection, rejection, ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic renal allograft dysfunction, etc. With the development of science and technology, including biomaterials, gene sequencing and other emerging technologies, Chinese researchers have launched a series of remarkable research in the field of kidney transplantation, aiming to solve these thorny issues. In 2023, relevant research of kidney transplantation in China not only focused on resolving the above challenges, but also highlighting on expanding novel technologies and concepts to build a brighter future of kidney transplantation. In this article, academic achievements of Chinese research teams in the field of kidney transplantation in 2023 were systematically reviewed, covering the frontiers of basic and clinical research and the application of emerging technologies, aiming to provide novel ideas and strategies for major clinical problems in the field of kidney transplantation from the local perspective and accelerate the advancement of kidney transplantation in China to a higher peak.
Expert Forum
Application status and prospect of organ from hepatitis C donor in solid organ transplantation
Qin Zhiwen, Zhang Wu
2024, 15(3): 390-397.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023207
Abstract(78) HTML(36) PDF 601KB()
Abstract:
As a marginal organ donor, organs from hepatitis C donors have been applied in solid organ transplantation. While effectively alleviating the shortage of organs, it also faces certain challenges, such as the spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV). With the emergence and application of direct-acting antiviral agent, the cure of hepatitis C has gradually become a reality, laying the foundation for hepatitis C patients to become organ transplant donors. At present, with adjuvant treatment using antiviral drugs, certain efficacy has been achieved in solid organ transplantation from hepatitis C donors. In this article, research progress in kidney, heart, lung and liver transplantation from hepatitis C donors, the application of hepatitis C donors in solid organ transplantation and the safety and effectiveness of antiviral drugs were reviewed, and the feasibility of hepatitis C donors in solid organ transplantation was evaluated, aiming to provide reference for expanding the donor pool of organ transplantation and shortening the waiting time for organ transplantation in patients with end-stage diseases.
Application of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in kidney transplantation: a continued story
Xie Siyu, Lu Jun
2024, 15(3): 398-405.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023228
Abstract(102) HTML(32) PDF 1807KB()
Abstract:
Immunosuppressant is one of the main preventive measures for rejection after organ transplantation, whereas it may reduce the host response capability to pathogens and increase the risk of infection. In recent years, the application of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in the field of solid organ transplantation has attracted widespread attention. Preclinical studies have shown that MSC therapy may prolong the survival time of transplant kidney, induce immune tolerance, accelerate the repair of acute kidney injury and promote the recovery of renal function. Clinical trials have confirmed the safety, tolerance and effectiveness of MSC therapy. Consequently, general characteristics, immunomodulation and tissue repair function of MSC, and the application of MSC in clinical trials of kidney transplantation were reviewed, the unresolved issues were briefly discussed and the prospects for subsequent research were predicted, aiming to provide reference for promoting the application of MSC therapy in clinical kidney transplantation.
Original Article
Down-regulating GSK3β alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury of senescent renal tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting the function of ITPR1-GRP75-VDAC1 complex
Ni Haiqiang, Gu Shiqi, Peng Xuan, Gong Nianqiao
2024, 15(3): 406-414.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024018
Abstract(82) HTML(37) PDF 3533KB()
Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate the effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury of senescent renal tubular epithelial cell (RTEC) in aged mice and its regulatory mechanism.   Methods  RTEC were divided into the Young group (young RTEC with normal growth), Old group (aged RTEC induced by Etoposide), Old+Ad-shNC+H/R group [aged RTEC induced by Etoposide and then transfected with adenovirus negative control (Ad-shNC) for H/R treatment], and Old+Ad-shGSK3β+H/R group (aged RTEC induced by Etoposide and then transfected with short-hairpin RNA-expressing adenovirus with targeted silencing GSK3β for H/R treatment), respectively. Apoptosis level and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species level were detected by flow cytometry. Calcium ion level was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The expression and phosphorylation levels of GSK3β, mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM)-related proteins of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor1 (ITPR1), voltage dependent anion-selective channel 1(VDAC1) and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) were detected by Western blot. The interaction between GSK3β and MAM-related proteins was analyzed by immunoprecipitation.   Results  Compared with the Young group, the apoptosis, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial calcium ion levels were higher in the Old group. Compared with the Old group, the apoptosis, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial calcium ion levels were higher in the Old+Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Old+Ad-shNC+H/R group, the apoptosis, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial calcium ion levels were lower in the Old+Ad-shGSK3β+H/R group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Compared with the Young group, the expression levels of ITPR1, GRP75 and GSK3β proteins were up-regulated, the phosphorylation levels of ITPR1 and GRP75 were increased, whereas the total protein and phosphorylation levels of VDAC1 were decreased in the Old group. Compared with the Old group, the expression level of GSK3β protein was unchanged, the total protein and phosphorylation levels of ITPR1 and GRP75 were increased, the expression level of total VDAC1 protein remained unchanged and the phosphorylation level was increased in the Old+Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Old+Ad-shNC+H/R group, the expression level of GSK3β protein was decreased, the expression levels of total ITPR1, GRP75 and VDAC1 proteins were unchanged, whereas the phosphorylation levels were decreased in the Old+Ad-shGSK3β+H/R group. Immunoprecipitation showed that GSK3β could interact with ITPR1, GRP75 and VDAC1 proteins.  Conclusions  The expression level of GSK3β is up-regulated in senescent RTEC. Down-regulating GSK3β expression may reduce the phosphorylation level of ITPR1-GRP75-VDAC1 complex, constrain the overload of mitochondrial calcium ion, protect mitochondrial function and mitigate cell damage during reperfusion.
In vitro study of immunocompatibility of humanized genetically modified pig erythrocytes with human serum
Chen Leijia, Cui Mengyi, Song Xiangyu, Wang Kai, Jia Zhibo, Yang Liupu, Dong Yanghui, Zuo Haochen, Du Jiaxiang, Pan Dengke, Xu Wenjing, Ren Hongbo, Zhao Yaqun, Peng Jiang
2024, 15(3): 415-421.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023226
Abstract(75) HTML(53) PDF 1608KB()
Abstract:
  Objective   To investigate the differences and the immunocompatibility of wild-type (WT), four-gene modified (TKO/hCD55) and six-gene modified (TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM) pig erythrocytes with human serum.   Methods  The blood samples were collected from 20 volunteers with different blood groups. WT, TKO/hCD55, TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM pig erythrocytes, ABO-compatible (ABO-C) and ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) human erythrocytes were exposed to human serum of different blood groups, respectively. The blood agglutination and antigen-antibody binding levels (IgG, IgM) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity were detected. The immunocompatibility of two types of genetically modified pig erythrocytes with human serum was evaluated.   Results  No significant blood agglutination was observed in the ABO-C group. The blood agglutination levels in the WT and ABO-I groups were higher than those in the TKO/hCD55 and TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM groups (all P<0.001). The level of erythrocyte lysis in the WT group was higher than those in the ABO-C, TKO/hCD55 and TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM groups. The level of erythrocyte lysis in the ABO-I group was higher than those in the TKO/hCD55 and TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM groups (both P<0.01). The pig erythrocyte binding level with IgM and IgG in the TKO/hCD55 group was lower than those in the WT and ABO-I groups. The pig erythrocyte binding level with IgG and IgM in the TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM group was lower than that in the WT group and pig erythrocyte binding level with IgG was lower than that in the ABO-I group (all P<0.05).   Conclusions  The immunocompatibility of genetically modified pig erythrocytes is better than that of wild-type pigs and close to that of ABO-C pigs. Humanized pig erythrocytes may be considered as a blood source when blood sources are extremely scarce.
Preliminary experience of robotic-assisted kidney transplantation in a single center
Zhang Mingxiao, Ding Zhenshan, Wang Jianfeng, Zhao Ying, Zhang Tianyu, Cao Chuanzhen, Deng Yisen, Zhou Xiaofeng
2024, 15(3): 422-428.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023261
Abstract(101) HTML(48) PDF 1360KB()
Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate the safety, effectiveness and feasibility of robotic-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT).   Methods  Clinical data of 16 patients who underwent kidney transplantation were collected. Among them, 8 recipients received RAKT (RAKT group) and 8 cases underwent open kidney transplantation (OKT) with the contralateral kidney from the same donor (OKT group). Perioperative status and the recovery of renal allograft function were compared between two groups.   Results  All patients successfully completed the surgery. In the RAKT group, no patient was converted to open surgery. The operation time in the RAKT group was longer than that in the OKT group (P=0.015). No significant differences were observed in the serum creatinine levels before surgery and upon discharge between two groups (both P>0.05). In the OKT group, one recipient developed delayed graft function (DGF), and the remaining recipients did not experience perioperative complications. No significant difference was noted in the short-term recovery of renal allograft function between two groups (P>0.05).   Conclusions  Postoperative recovery of the recipients in the RAKT group is equivalent to that of their counterparts in the OKT group. RAKT is a safe and effective procedure for the team expertise in kidney transplantation.
Effect of irregular follow-up during normalized prevention and control of epidemic on viral load upon BK virus reactivation and prognosis of kidney transplant recipients
Wu Zhouting, Wang Yuchen, Zeng Wenli, Xia Renfei, Deng Wenfeng, Xu Jian, Miao Yun
2024, 15(3): 429-434.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023231
Abstract(84) HTML(61) PDF 706KB()
Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate the effect of irregular follow-up during normalized prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) epidemic on BK virus (BKV) reactivation and clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients.   Methods  Clinical data of 363 kidney transplant recipients were retrospectively analyzed, and they were divided into the pre-epidemic follow-up group and during-epidemic follow-up group according to the follow-up time. All patients were followed up for 1 year. The follow-up interval was compared between two groups. The infection of BKV and the correlation between the infection process of BKV and renal graft function were analyzed in two groups.   Results  A total of 1 790 preson-times were followed up before COVID-19 epidemic and 2 680 during COVID-19 epidemic. Compared with the during-epidemic follow-up group, the follow-up intervals within 3, 3-6 and 7-12 months after kidney transplantation were shorter in the pre-epidemic follow-up group, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Within 1 year after kidney transplantation, 35 cases(32%) were diagnosed with BKV viruria, 3 cases(3%) of BKV viremia and 1 case(1%) of BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) in the pre-epidemic follow-up group, and 53(25%), 3(1%) and 1(1%) in the during-epidemic follow-up group, with no statistical significance (all P>0.05). In the pre-epidemic follow-up group, the time for the initial diagnosis of BKV viruria was longer and the viral load of the first urinary BKV reactivation was smaller than those in the during-epidemic follow-up group, with statistical significance (both P<0.05). The load of the first urinary BKV reactivation was positively correlated with the peak load of urinary BKV, and the differences between the baseline and serum creatinine levels at 1 and 3 months after BKV reactivation (all P<0.05).  Conclusions  Irregular follow-up after kidney transplantation may lead to early BKV reactivation and higher detection value of the first viral load of urinary BKV, delay diagnosis and interventions, and lead to poor prognosis. It is urgent to establish a remote follow-up system to meet the follow-up requirements of kidney transplant recipients when public health incidents occur.
Long-term safety and effectiveness of withdrawal of HBIG and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues in recipients undergoing hepatitis B immune reconstitution after liver transplantation
Wu Feng, Duan Binwei, Ouyang Yabo, Zhang Jing, Cao Yu, Li Guangming
2024, 15(3): 435-442.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023253
Abstract(82) HTML(37) PDF 533KB()
Abstract:
  Objective   To investigate the long-term safety and effectiveness of withdrawal of hepatitis B immuneglobulin (HBIG) and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) reinfection in liver transplant recipients with hepatitis B-related diseases after successful vaccination.   Methods  Baseline data of 76 liver transplant recipients undergoing hepatitis B immune reconstitution after receiving hepatitis B vaccines were retrospectively analyzed. The vaccination and response, the follow-up results of respondents with HBIG and/or NAs withdrawal, and the reinfection of HBV after withdrawal of HBIG and/or NAs were analyzed.   Results  The time interval from liver transplantation to hepatitis B vaccination was 26 (20, 40) months. The time interval from vaccination to response was 15 (8,27) months. Initially, 76 recipients withdrew HBIG, and 36 recipients withdrew HBIG and NAs. During the follow-up, 12 of 76 recipients who withdrew HBIG resumed use of HBIG, and 16 of 36 recipients who withdrew HBIG and NAs resumed use of NAs. The withdrawal time of HBIG and NAs was 135 (98,150) and 133 (34,149) months, respectively. Sixteen respondents did not receive booster, and 36 respondents received boosters on a regular basis. The time interval between the first booster and HBIG withdrawal was 44 (11,87) months. No significant differences were observed in baseline data between the respondents with and without boosters (all P>0.05). During the follow-up, 9 recipients were lost to follow-up, 5 were re-infected with HBV, 3 died, and 1 recipient developed graft loss and underwent secondary liver transplantation. Among 5 recipients re-infected with HBV, 4 cases had virus mutation. Significant differences were found between re-infected and uninfected patients regarding withdrawal of NAs and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive before transplantation (both P<0.05).   Conclusions  Long-term withdrawal of HBIG is feasible and safe for recipients with successful hepatitis B immune reconstitution after liver transplantation for hepatitis B-related diseases. Nevertheless, whether antiviral drugs can be simultaneously withdrawn remains to be validated.
Application of multi-disciplinary team mode in prevention and control of multidrug resistant organism infection in lung transplant recipients
Qiu Sangsang, Xu Qinfen, Huang Qinhong, Gong Yuqing, Chen Jingyu, Wu Bo
2024, 15(3): 443-448.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024008
Abstract(75) HTML(36) PDF 699KB()
Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate the effectiveness of multi-disciplinary team (MDT) mode in the prevention and control of multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) infection in lung transplant recipients.   Methods  Lung transplant recipients admitted to the hospital from 2019 to 2022 were enrolled. MDT expert group was established in January, 2020. A series of prevention and control measures were conducted. The implementation rate of MDRO prevention and control measures and the detection rate of MDRO on the environmental surface from 2020 to 2022, and the detection rate of MDRO in lung transplant recipients from 2019 to 2022 were analyzed.   Results  The overall implementation rate of MDRO prevention and control measures for medical staff was increased from 64.9% in 2020 to 91.6% in 2022, showing an increasing trend year by year (P<0.05). The detection rate of MDRO on the environmental surface was decreased from 28% in 2020 to 9% in 2022, showing a downward trend year by year (P<0.05). The detection rate of MDRO in lung transplant recipients was decreased from 66.7% in 2019 to 44.3% in 2022, showing a decreasing trend year by year (P<0.001).   Conclusions  MDT mode management may enhance the implementation of MDRO prevention and control measures for medical staff, effectively reduce the infection rate of MDRO in lung transplant recipients and the detection rate of MDRO on the environmental surface, which is worthy of widespread application.
Clinical analysis of lung transplantation for lung chronic graft-versus-host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Ling Guoyao, Lian Qiaoyan, Li Shiyin, Wang Xiaohua, Wang Lulin, Liao Hailin, Ju Chunrong
2024, 15(3): 449-455.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023258
Abstract(74) HTML(26) PDF 1268KB()
Abstract:
  Objective  To evaluate clinical efficacy of lung transplantation for lung chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).   Methods  Clinical data of 12 patients undergoing lung transplantation for lung cGVHD were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative clinical manifestations and involved organs of patients were analyzed. The lung function before and after lung transplantation was compared, and the survival of patients after lung transplantation was analyzed.   Results  Eleven patients underwent HSCT due to primary hematological malignancies, including 9 cases of leukemia, 1 case of myelodysplastic syndrome, 1 case of lymphoma. And 1 case underwent HSCT for systemic lupus erythematosus. Among 12 cGVHD patients, skin involvement was found in 8 cases, oral cavity involvement in 5 cases, gastrointestinal tract involvement in 4 cases and liver involvement in 3 cases. All 12 patients developed severe respiratory failure caused by cGVHD before lung transplantation, including 9 cases of typeⅡ respiratory failure and 3 cases of type Ⅰ respiratory failure. Two patients underwent right lung transplantation, 2 cases of left lung transplantation and 8 cases of bilateral lung transplantation. The interval from HSCT to lung transplantation was 75 (19-187) months. Upon the date of submission, postoperative follow-up time was 18 (7-74) months. Ten patients survived, 1 died from severe hepatitis at postoperative 22 months, and 1 died from gastrointestinal bleeding at postoperative 6 months. No recurrence of primary diseases was reported in surviving patients.   Conclusions  Lung transplantation is an efficacious treatment for lung cGVHD after HSCT, which may prolong the survival time and improve the quality of life of the recipients.
Transplantation Ethics
Ethical research of incentive policies for organ donation after citizen’s death
Hu Xiaonan, Lyu Renjie, Wang Linying, Meng Yexiang, Cui Yu, Yan Juan
2024, 15(3): 456-462.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024012
Abstract(99) HTML(39) PDF 585KB()
Abstract:
In recent years, with the rapid development of organ donation after citizen’s death and transplantation, central and local governments in China have successively released incentive policies. To protect the legitimate rights and interests of organ donors after citizen’s death and their families, current status of incentive policies for organ donation after citizen’s death was illustrated and analyzed from the perspective of ethics. Combining with the principles of justice, respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence and beneficence, the problems existing in the implementation of incentive policies for organ donation after citizen’s death were identified in China, such as lack of continuous psychological intervention in spiritual incentives, the misinterpretation of humanitarian assistance in practice and the impact of indirect economic incentives on individual donation autonomy, etc. Relevant countermeasures and suggestions were proposed at the government, society and individual levels, aiming to provide reference for improving the incentive policies for organ donation after citizen’s death and accelerate the development of organ donation in China.
Review Article
Opportunities and challenges of marginal donor liver
Lu Xinyi, Teng Fei, Fu Hong, Zhao Yuanyu, Zhu Liye, Dong Jiayong, Mao Jiaxi, Guo Wenyuan
2024, 15(3): 463-468.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024002
Abstract(88) HTML(48) PDF 552KB()
Abstract:
With persistent breakthrough and maturity of surgical procedures and postoperative immunosuppressive therapy, the survival rate of liver transplant recipients and grafts has been significantly increased. The shortage of donor liver has become the main obstacle for clinical development of liver transplantation. How to expand the source of donor liver has become an urgent issue. Groundbreaking progresses have been made in the use of common marginal donor livers in clinical liver transplantation, such as elderly donor liver, steatosis donor liver, viral hepatitis donor liver and liver from donation after cardiac death. Nevertheless, multiple restrictions still exist regarding the use of marginal donor liver. Consequently, the definition of marginal donor liver and research progress in the application of common marginal donor livers were reviewed, and the opportunities and challenges of mariginal donoor liver were illustrated, aiming to provide reference for expanding the donor pool for clinical liver transplantation and bringing benefits to more patients with end-stage liver disease.
Research progress on anatomic vascular reconstruction in rat models of orthotopic liver transplantation
Wu Weikang, Li Xiao, Wang Xudan, Ding Rui, Tao Kaishan
2024, 15(3): 469-473.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024037
Abstract(88) HTML(35) PDF 515KB()
Abstract:
Establishment of rat models of liver transplantation provides an ideal animal model for resolving the problems of postoperative complications and perioperative treatment of liver transplantation. With in-depth study of the establishment of rat models of liver transplantation, classic "two-cuff" technique has been gradually employed. However, poor surgical field, vascular torsion, biliary tract injury and long anhepatic phase remain unresolved in the process of liver transplantation using traditional techniques. At present, the rat models of liver transplantation at home and abroad are modified mainly from the reconstruction of four vital anatomic structures including the suprahepatic inferior vena cava, portal vein, infrahepatic inferior vena cava and bile duct. Therefore, the latest progress in the reconstruction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava, portal vein, infrahepatic inferior vena cava and bile duct was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the establishment of rat models of liver transplantation and promote further development of liver transplantation techniques.
Latest research progress in airway stenosis after lung transplantation
Zuo Yujie, Liu Menggen, Wan Jiaxin, Chen Yuxuan, Hu Wenlong, Zhang Junjie, Mao Yuyang, Chen Jing, Zhong Ailing, Shi Lingzhi, Wu Bo, Ju Chunrong, Tian Dong
2024, 15(3): 474-478.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024075
Abstract(71) HTML(31) PDF 518KB()
Abstract:
With the optimization of surgical technologies and postoperative management regimens, the number of lung transplantation has been significantly increased, which has become an important treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease. However, due to the impact of comprehensive factors, such as bronchial ischemia and immunosuppression, the incidence of airway stenosis after lung transplantation is relatively high, which severely affects postoperative survival and quality of life of lung transplant recipients. In recent years, with the improvement of perioperative management, organ preservation and surgical technologies, the incidence of airway stenosis after lung transplantation has been declined, but it remains at a high level. Early diagnosis and timely intervention play a significant role in enhancing clinical prognosis of patients with airway stenosis. In this article, the general conditions, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of airway stenosis after lung transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for comprehensive management of airway stenosis after lung transplantation and improving clinical prognosis of lung transplant recipients.
Guideline on immunosuppressive therapy of recipients with renal transplantation in China(2016 edition)
2016, 7(5): 327-331.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.05.001
Abstract(1481) HTML(1118) PDF 201KB(450)
摘要:
为提高临床医师对肾移植受者免疫抑制治疗的认识, 规范国内肾移植受者管理, 帮助医师在肾移植临床实践中做出合理决策, 我们组织专家制订了《中国肾移植受者免疫抑制治疗指南(2016版)》。该指南以《2009版改善全球肾病预后组织(KDIGO)肾移植受者管理指南》为主要参考, 结合我国的临床实践经验, 希望能为相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Development status of organ transplantation in China: the report on the 2018 Annual Meeting of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
Shi Bingyi
2019, 10(1): 32-35.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.01.004
Abstract(1800) HTML(939) PDF 886KB(214)
摘要:
我国的器官移植事业正处于由数量规模型发展向高质量和高科技含量提升、由移植大国向移植强国冲刺的历史关键时期。在2018年中华医学会器官移植学年会上,主任委员石炳毅教授从中国器官捐献与移植体系建设、中国器官移植发展现状两大方面,作了“继往开来,中国器官移植的发展现状”的报告。新的历史时期赋予我们新的历史使命,器官移植学分会要主动作为,推动科学发展,为贯彻新理念、拓宽新视野、实现新愿景而努力奋斗。
Technical specifcation for clinical application of immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(3): 213-226.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.03.001
Abstract(1710) HTML(2246) PDF 1076KB(659)
摘要:
为了进一步规范器官移植免疫抑制剂的临床应用,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织全国31家移植中心的器官移植专家,从器官移植免疫诱导药物应用技术规范、器官移植维持期免疫抑制剂应用技术规范、器官移植常用免疫抑制方案技术规范、器官移植免疫抑制剂血药浓度监测技术规范、器官移植药物性肝肾损伤治疗技术规范等方面,制订本规范,以帮助器官移植工作者规范和优化器官移植免疫抑制剂的临床应用。
Clinical guideline on living donor renal transplantation in China (2016 edition)
2016, 7(6): 417-426.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.06.002
Abstract(2542) HTML(876) PDF 323KB(536)
摘要:
活体供肾移植经历半个多世纪的发展,已成为终末期肾病患者的重要治疗手段。在我国,亲属活体器官捐献肾移植作为家庭自救的方式之一,近年来已成为肾脏供体来源的重要补充部分。本指南以世界卫生组织《人体器官移植指导原则》(1991)、中华人民共和国国务院《人体器官移植条例》(2007)以及国家卫生部《关于规范活体器官移植的若干规定》(2010)为法律依据,在《中国活体供肾移植指南》(2009)的基础上进行更新。内容包括活体供肾移植的伦理学、供者与受者的医学评估、活体供肾摘取原则与手术方式、供者近期与远期并发症以及供者的长期随访等。
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association Process and specification of Chinese donation after citizen′s death (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(2): 122-127.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.02.003
Abstract(3275) HTML(1463) PDF 5080KB(335)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国公民逝世后器官捐献的流程,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植和器官捐献相关专家,从报名登记、捐献评估、捐献确认、器官获取、器官分配、遗体处理、人道救助、捐献文书归档等8个环节,制定中国公民逝世后器官捐献流程和规范(2019版)。
Technical specification for the diagnosis and treatment on rejection of renal transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(5): 505-512.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.05.008
Abstract(1342) HTML(788) PDF 882KB(348)
摘要:
为了进一步规范肾移植排斥反应的临床诊断与治疗, 中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植学专家, 总结各移植中心的肾移植临床经验, 在《中国肾脏移植排斥反应临床诊疗指南(2016版)》的基础上, 并依据Banff标准, 从超急性排斥反应、急性加速性排斥反应、急性排斥反应、慢性排斥反应等方面, 制订本规范。
2019, 10(2): 142-148.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.02.005
Abstract(1677) HTML(1684) PDF 7197KB(419)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国实体器官移植(SOT)受者巨细胞病毒(CMV)感染的诊断和治疗,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植专家、感染病学专家及呼吸内科专家,在《实体器官移植受者巨细胞病毒感染诊疗指南(2017版)》的基础上,从CMV感染的主要危险因素、实验室诊断、临床类型、预防方案,CMV病的治疗,儿童SOT术后CMV感染或CMV病的防治,CMV肺炎合并伊氏肺孢子菌肺炎的防治等方面,制订本规范,以期为我国SOT术后CMV感染的规范化防治提供指导意见。
Guideline on the application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the perioperative period of lung transplantation(2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, National Quality Management and Control Center for Lung Transplantation
2019, 10(4): 402-409.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.04.009
Abstract(758) HTML(384) PDF 1381KB(122)
摘要:
肺移植是治疗多种终末期肺疾病的唯一有效方法,体外膜肺氧合(ECMO)在肺移植围手术期起到重要的桥接和支持作用。本指南从肺移植术前ECMO的桥接治疗、术中的心肺支持及术后功能维持等方面,总结肺移植临床实践经验,以期为我国肺移植相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Technical specifcation for diagnosis and treatment of post transplantation diabetes mellitus in China (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(1): 1-9.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.01.001
Abstract(322) HTML(182) PDF 724KB(106)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国移植后糖尿病(PTDM)的诊断和治疗, 中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植专家和糖尿病专家, 总结器官移植后血糖异常的国内外最新进展, 在《中国器官移植术后糖尿病诊疗指南(2016版)》的基础上, 结合临床实践, 从PTDM的定义和诊断标准、流行病学、危险因素和发病机制、对移植受者和移植物预后的影响、预防及治疗策略等方面, 制定PTDM诊疗技术规范(2019版)。
Technical specifcation for clinical diagnosis and treatment for invasive fungal disease in organ transplant recipients (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(3): 227-236.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.03.002
Abstract(926) HTML(605) PDF 2552KB(238)
摘要:
为了进一步规范实体器官移植(SOT)受者侵袭性真菌病(IFD)的诊断和治疗,中华医学会器官移植学分会结合近期国内外临床证据,从SOT受者IFD的流行病学特点、诊断、预防、治疗等方面,在2017年版《器官移植受者侵袭性真菌病临床诊疗指南》的基础上制定本规范,以期为器官移植和相关学科的同道提供帮助。
Overview of global organ donation and transplantation in 2020
Jiang Wenshi, Sun Yongkang, Yan Juan, Jiang Feng, Wang Huiying, Ma Qiruo, Xie Ying, He Xiangxiang, Wu Xiaotong
2021, 12(4): 376-383.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2021.04.002
Abstract(3690) HTML(4894) PDF 1734KB(4894)
Abstract:
  Objective  At present, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic is still raging in certain regions around the globe, and the prevention and control of the pandemic should be strengthened. Under the challenges of respective social environment and allocation of medical resources, and support from the inertia and inherent productivity of the system on which the industry depends, extensive attempts are being delivered to push forward the work of organ donation and transplantation in each country. Under the guidance of national experts and committee members, Shanxi Provincial Human Organ Procurement and Allocation Service Center was established on August 28, 2018 approved by the former Shanxi Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission. It is the only independent non-profit medical institution in Shanxi Province. In this article, the system construction of citizen's organ donation and transplantation fitting national and provincial conditions was further explored according to the data analysis of organ donation and transplantation in the United States and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic combined with the implementation of organ donation work in Shanxi Provincial Human Organ Procurement and Allocation Service Center.
Chinese expert consensus on organ protection of transplantation (2022 edition)
China Liver Transplant Registry, National Center for Healthcare Quality Management in Liver Transplant, National Quality Control Center for Human Donated Organ Procurement, National Clinical Research Center for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation, Committee on Transplant Organ Quality Control, Branch of Organ Transplant Physicians of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Organ Procurement and Allocation Working Committee of the China Hospital Association, National Trauma Medical Center Organ Protection Committee
2022, 13(2): 144-160.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.02.002
Abstract(2820) HTML(881) PDF 18636KB(881)
Abstract:
Organ transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage organ failure, and voluntary donation after citizen's death is the only source of transplant organ in China. Clinically, transplant organ protection technique plays a critical role in improving the quality of transplant organs and the prognosis of recipients. On the basis of domestic and worldwide basic research and clinical practice of transplant organ protection and according to the Oxford evidence classification and GRADE system, the experts organized by Branch of Organ Transplant Physicians of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Branch of Transplantation Group of Surgery of Chinese Medical Association and China Liver Transplant Registry Scientific Committee had compiled and published the Chinese Expert Consensus on Organ Protection of Transplantation (2016 edition) for liver, kidney, pancreas, small intestine, heart, lung transplant organs. With the support of China Liver Transplant Registry, National Trauma Medical Center, National Quality Control Center for Human Donated Organ Procurement, National Clinical Research Center for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation and National Center for Healthcare Quality Management in Liver Transplant combined with recent domeatic and worldwide clinical practice and research progress for organ transplantation and organ protection, the Chinese Expert Consensus on Organ Protection of Transplantation (2022 edition) has been published recently. This consensus focuses on updating the technical progress and evidence-based medicine of organ procurement, preservation, transport, and quality evaluation in clinical practice. Additionally, the content of composite tissue transplantation mainly including limb transplantation has also been covered. The aim is to promote the the scientific and standardized clinical organ transplantation.

Competent Authorities: Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China

Sponsored by: Sun Yat-sen University

Presented by: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Editor-in-Chief: Gui-Hua Chen

Publisher: Editorial Office of Organ Transplantation

Address: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600, Tianhe Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou

Postcode: 510630

Tel: 020-38736410

Email: organtranspl@163.com

Postal Code: 46-35

Website: http://www.organtranspl.com

Journal: bimonthly

Price: 20 yuan for each period and 120 yuan for the whole year

CN 44-1665/R

ISSN 1674-7445

Open Access