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The question of death criteria in human organ donation
Yang Shunliang, Jiang Zhelong, Lyu Lizhi, Li Yushu, Wang Dong
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024033
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Donation after death is the most important ethical principle to carry out organ donation after citizens’ death. The newly-revised Regulations on Human Organ Donation and Transplantation does not define death, and avoids the key question of “whether to recognize brain death”. Certain legal risks or damages to the rights and interests of donors may exist in organ donation. Death is an inevitable part of human life. It is necessary to establish specific criteria, which is also the only approach, to define death in any era. Death criteria are established based on the view of death, and restricted by the development level of productive forces and other social factors. The determination of death criteria hugely varies between China and the West. To standardize organ donation and transplantation and promote high-quality development of organ donation, medical staff must adhere to the principle of pure motivation, take informed consents as the premise, respect the donors' and their close relatives' rights to choose their own death criteria, strictly follow the death judgment procedures and operating norms, and ensure the scientificity, accuracy and fairness of death determination.
Opportunities and challenges of marginal donor liver
Lu Xinyi, Teng Fei, Fu Hong, Zhao Yuanyu, Zhu Liye, Dong Jiayong, Mao Jiaxi, Guo Wenyuan
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024002
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With persistent breakthrough and maturity of surgical procedures and postoperative immunosuppressive therapy, the survival rate of liver transplant recipients and grafts has been significantly increased. The shortage of donor liver has become the main obstacle for clinical development of liver transplantation. How to expand the source of donor liver has become an urgent issue. Groundbreaking progresses have been made in the use of common marginal donor livers in clinical liver transplantation, such as elderly donor liver, steatosis donor liver, viral hepatitis donor liver and liver from donation after cardiac death. Nevertheless, multiple restrictions still exist regarding the use of marginal donor liver. Consequently, the definition of marginal donor liver and research progress in the application of common marginal donor livers were reviewed, and the opportunities and challenges for expanding the existing donor pool for liver transplantation were illustrated, aiming to provide reference for expanding the donor pool for clinical liver transplantation and bringing benefits to more patients with end-stage liver disease.
In vitro study of immunocompatibility of humanized genetically modified pig erythrocytes with human serum
Chen Leijia, Cui Mengyi, Song Xiangyu, Wang Kai, Jia Zhibo, Yang Liupu, Dong Yanghui, Zuo Haochen, Du Jiaxiang, Pan Dengke, Xu Wenjing, Ren Hongbo, Zhao Yaqun, Peng Jiang
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023226
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  Objective   To investigate the differences and the immunocompatibility of wild-type (WT), four-gene modified (TKO/hCD55) and six-gene modified (TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM) pig erythrocytes with human serum.   Methods  The blood samples were collected from 20 volunteers with different blood groups. WT, TKO/hCD55, TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM pig erythrocytes, ABO-compatible (ABO-C) and ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) human erythrocytes were exposed to human serum of different blood groups, respectively. The blood agglutination and antigen-antibody binding levels (IgG, IgM) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity were detected. The immunocompatibility of two types of genetically modified pig erythrocytes with human serum was evaluated.   Results  No significant blood agglutination was observed in the ABO-C group. The blood agglutination levels in the WT and ABO-I groups were higher than those in the TKO/hCD55 and TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM groups (all P<0.001). The level of erythrocyte lysis in the WT group was higher than those in the ABO-C, TKO/hCD55 and TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM groups. The level of erythrocyte lysis in the ABO-I group was higher compared with those in the TKO/hCD55 and TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM groups (both P<0.01). The pig erythrocyte binding level with IgM and IgG in the TKO/hCD55 group was lower than those in the WT and ABO-I groups. The pig erythrocyte binding level with IgG and IgM in the TKO/hCD55/hCD46/hTBM group was lower than that in the WT group and pig erythrocyte binding level with IgG was lower than that in the ABO-I group (all P<0.05).   Conclusions  The immunocompatibility of genetically modified pig erythrocytes is better than that of wild-type pigs and close to that of ABO-C pigs. Humanized pig erythrocytes may be considered as a blood source when blood sources are extremely scarce.
Hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients
Guo Fansheng, Zeng Qiang, Dou Jian
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023216
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Hepatitis E virus infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis. In recent years, the incidence of hepatitis E has shown an increasing trend, which has gradually become an important cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Age, sex, intensity of immunosuppression and socio-economic factors are all risk factors for hepatitis E virus infection. Liver transplant recipients require long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs for anti rejection treatment, prone to hepatitis E virus infection and at the risk of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis due to immunosuppression status. Therefore, special attention should be paid to liver transplant recipients in clinical practice. Meantime, related risk factors should be identified to assist diagnosis and take stricter preventive measures. According to literature review, the etiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus and the epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients were reviewed, aiming to properly monitor, treat and prevent hepatitis E virus infection in liver transplant recipients in clinical practice, improving the prognosis of liver transplant recipients.
Application of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in kidney transplantation: a continued story
Xie Siyu, Lu Jun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023228
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Immunosuppressant is one of the main preventive measures for rejection after organ transplantation, whereas it may reduce the host response capability to pathogens and increase the risk of infection. In recent years, the application of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in the field of solid organ transplantation has attracted widespread attention. Preclinical studies have shown that MSC therapy may prolong the survival time of transplant kidney, induce immune tolerance, accelerate the repair of acute kidney injury and promote the recovery of renal function. Clinical trials have confirmed the safety, tolerance and effectiveness of MSC therapy. Consequently, general characteristics, immunomodulation and tissue repair function of MSC, and the application of MSC in clinical trials of kidney transplantation were reviewed, the unresolved issues were briefly discussed and the prospects for subsequent research were predicted, aiming to provide reference for promoting the application of MSC therapy in clinical kidney transplantation.
Application of immune repertoire sequencing in solid organ transplantation
Liang Lifei, Chen Tingting, Yang Cheng
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023192
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Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of T cells and B cells, which possesses high diversity and enables immune system to respond to various antigen stimuli. With the development of sequencing technique, immune repertoire sequencing can be utilized to deeply understand the changes of lymphocyte clones when rejection occurs at the gene level, and also provide the possibility for the emergence of novel non-invasive diagnostic techniques based on immune repertoire sequencing. In recent years, more and more attempts have been made to apply immune repertoire sequencing in solid organ transplantation, especially in the fields of kidney transplantation, liver transplantation, heart transplantation and post-transplantation infection. In this article, research progresses on the application of immune repertoire sequencing in these fields were reviewed, and current status of immune repertoire sequencing in organ transplantation and its potential as a novel technique for early non-invasive diagnosis of rejection were summarized, aiming to provide reference for subsequent development and clinical application of this technique.
Present situation and progress of xenotransplantation at home and abroad
Zhang Xiaoyan, Wang Guohui, Han Shichao, Qi Ruochen, Liu Kepu, Wei Di, Yang Xiaojian, Ma Shuaijun, Dou Kefeng, Qin Weijun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023193
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Organ shortage has become one of the major challenges hindering the development of organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation is one of the most valuable methods to resolve global organ shortage. In recent years, the development of genetic engineering technique and research and development of new immunosuppressant have provided novel theoretical basis for xenotransplantation. International scholars have successively carried out researches on xenotransplantation in genetically modified pigs to non-human primates or brain death recipients, making certain substantial progresses. However, most of the researches are still in the preclinical stage, far from clinical application. Therefore, according to the latest preclinical experimental research progress at home and abroad, the history of xenotransplantation, the development of gene modification technology, xenotransplantation rejection and immunosuppression regimens were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for subsequent research of xenotransplantation, promote clinical application of xenotransplantation and bring benefits to more patients with end-stage diseases.
Latest research and prospect of CD47 in kidney transplantation
Chen Yuxiang, Li Zhuocheng, Gao Liang, Zhu Xuyuan, Zhang Yu, Li Tao, Jiang Hongtao
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2024005
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CD47 is a transmembrane protein widely expressed on cell surface, which is considered as a key molecule for immune escape. With an increasing number of related studies, the role of CD47 and its ligands in immunomodulatory effects has been gradually understood. Recent studies have investigated the role of CD47 in ischemia-reperfusion injury of allogenetic kidney transplantation, rejection and xenotransplantation. Nevertheless, the specific role and the key mechanism remain elusive. In this article, the structure and function of CD47, common CD47 ligands, CD47 and kidney transplantation, and the application of CD47 in kidney transplantation were reviewed, the latest research progress of CD47 in kidney transplantation was summarized, and the limitations of current research and subsequent research direction were analyzed, aiming to provide reference for subsequent application of CD47 in allogeneic and kidney xenotransplantation.
Liver transplantation for inherited metabolic liver disease
Shen Conghuan, Wang Zhengxin
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023212
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Inherited metabolic liver disease (IMLD) is a category of liver metabolic diseases caused by genetic disorders. The pathogenesis of IMLD is complex, which primarily comprises the accumulation of harmful metabolic substrates or products caused by specific enzyme defects and energy defects or abnormal deposition caused by abnormal metabolism of glucose, fat and other substances. In recent years, liver transplantation has played an increasingly critical role in the treatment of IMLD with the development of liver transplantation. At present, IMLD has become the second most important indication after biliary atresia in pediatric liver transplantation. Currently, IMLD patients receiving liver transplantation can be divided into two categories: the first category is IMLD complicated with liver disease; Category 2 patients have a normal liver structure but are deficient in related metabolic enzymes. It can not only replace the liver with abnormal structure and function, but also provide normal enzymes required for patients' metabolism, which may improve their quality of life and even save their lives. In this article, common feasible liver transplantation for IMLD, clinical prognosis and surgical procedures of liver transplantation for IMLD were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for liver transplantation for IMLD.
Influencing factors of survival of patients with airway stenosis requiring clinical interventions after lung transplantation
Shi Lingzhi, Huang Heng, Liu Mingzhao, Yang Hang, Wu Bo, Zhao Jin, Yan Haoji, Zuo Yujie, Zhang Xinyue, Liu Linxi, Tian Dong, Chen Jingyu
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023236
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  Objective  To analyze the influencing factors of survival of patients with airway stenosis requiring clinical interventions after lung transplantation.   Methods  Clinical data of 66 patients with airway stenosis requiring clinical interventions after lung transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox’s regression models were adopted to analyze the influencing factors of survival of all patients with airway stenosis and those with early airway stenosis. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the overall survival and delineate the survival curve.   Results  For 66 patients with airway stenosis, the median airway stenosis-free time was 72 (52,102) d, 27% (18/66) for central airway stenosis and 73% (48/66) for distal airway stenosis. Postoperative mechanical ventilation time [hazard ratio (HR) 1.037, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.005-1.070, P=0.024] and type of surgery (HR 0.400, 95%CI 0.177-0.903, P=0.027) were correlated with the survival of patients with airway stenosis after lung transplantation. The longer the postoperative mechanical ventilation time, the higher the risk of mortality of the recipients. The overall survival of airway stenosis recipients undergoing bilateral lung transplantation was better than that of their counterparts after single lung transplantation. Subgroup analysis showed that grade 3 primary graft dysfunction (PGD) (HR 4.577, 95%CI 1.439-14.555, P=0.010) and immunosuppressive drugs (HR 0.079, 95%CI 0.022-0.287, P<0.001) were associated with the survival of patients with early airway stenosis after lung transplantation. The overall survival of patients with early airway stenosis after lung transplantation without grade 3 PGD was better compared with that of those with grade 3 PGD. The overall survival of patients with early airway stenosis after lung transplantation treated with tacrolimus was superior to that of their counterparts treated with cyclosporine.   Conclusions  Long postoperative mechanical ventilation time, single lung transplantation, grade 3 PGD and use of cyclosporine may affect the survival of patients with airway stenosis after lung transplantation.
Research report of living donor kidney harvesting in Bama miniature pigs with six gene edited
Xu Yong, Song Xiangyu, Wang Heng’en, Yang Shujun, Jia Zhibo, Wei Hao, Chen Shengfeng, Cui Mengyi, Ren Yanling, Peng Jiang, Sun Shengkun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023215
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  Objective  To summarize the experience and practical value of living donor kidney harvesting in Bama miniature pigs with six gene edited.   Methods  The left kidney of Bama miniature pigs with six gene edited was obtained by living donor kidney harvesting technique. First, the ureter was occluded, and then the inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta were freed. During the harvesting process, the ureter, renal vein and renal artery were exposed and freed in sequence. The vascular forceps were used at the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava, and the renal artery and vein were immediately perfused with 4℃ renal preservation solution, and stored in ice normal saline for subsequent transplantation. Simultaneously, the donor abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava gap were sutured. The operation time, blood loss, warm and cold ischemia time, postoperative complications and the survival of donors and recipients were recorded.   Results  The left kidney of the genetically-edited pig was successfully harvested. Intraoperative bleeding was 5 mL, warm ischemia time was 45 s, and cold ischemia time was 2.5 h. Neither donor nor recipient pig received blood transfusion, and urinary function of the kidney transplanted into the recipient was recovered. The donor survived for more than 8 months after the left kidney was resected.   Conclusions  Living donor kidney harvesting is safe and reliable in genetically-edited pigs. Branch blood vessels could be processed during kidney harvesting, which shortens the process of kidney repair and the time of cold ischemia. Living donor kidney harvesting contributes to subsequent survival of donors and other scientific researches.
Research progress in liver transplantation in patients with situs inversus totalis
Wang Anqi, Tang Rui, Lu Qian
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023179
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Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital condition, with an extremely low incidence. There is no difference between SIT individuals without onset of diseases and healthy counterparts. However, when SIT individuals suffer from diseases, the diagnosis and treatment are highly challenging due to insufficient understanding of SIT populations, especially for those complicated with end-stage liver disease and requiring liver transplantation. It is a huge challenge for surgeons whether SIT individuals serve as donors or recipients of liver transplantation. In this article, recent case reports related to liver transplantation in SIT patients were summarized, and the development, key procedures, clinical prognosis and postoperative complications of liver transplantation in SIT patients were reviewed.
Research progress in liver transplantation for colorectal liver metastasis
Huang Zhongjing, Wu Ziyi, Ai Junhua
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023188
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Colorectal cancer is one of the common malignant tumors in China. Studies have shown that more than 50% of patients with colorectal cancer will experience metastasis. After systematic treatment, patients with resectable colorectal cancer could obtain favorable 5-year survival rate. However, patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis constantly obtain poor prognosis. In spite of the development of medical treatment, patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis can be treated by multiple approaches, such as interventional therapy combined with targeted therapy and immunotherapy, clinical efficacy is relatively low. Hence, clinicians divert extensive attention to liver transplantation. Liver transplantation, as an emerging treatment in recent years, is expected to improve clinical prognosis of patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis. In this article, research progress in liver transplantation for patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastasis was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for liver transplantation for patients with colorectal liver metastasis.
Kidney transplantation from donors with Marfan syndrome: report of 2 cases and literature review
Zhang Meng, Wang Yibin, Wang Yuchen, Liu Rumin, Yan Ziyan, Xia Renfei, Zeng Wenli, Hui Jialiang, Zhou Minjie, Xu Jian, Miao Yun
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023239
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  Objective  To investigate the feasibility and clinical experience of kidney transplantation from donors with Marfan syndrome (MFS).   Methods  Clinical data of 2 recipients undergoing kidney transplantation from the same MFS patient were retrospectively analyzed and literature review of 2 cases was conducted. Characteristics and clinical diagnosis and treatment of kidney transplantation from MFS patients were summarized.   Results  The Remuzzi scores of the left and right donor kidneys of the MFS patient during time-zero biopsy were 1 and 2. No significant difference was observed in the renal arteriole wall compared with other donors of brain death and cardiac death. Two recipients who received kidney transplantation from the MFS patient suffered from postoperative delayed graft function. After short-term hemodialysis, the graft function of the recipients received the left and right kidney began to gradually recover at postoperative 10 d and 20 d. After discharge, serum creatinine level of the recipient received the left kidney was ranged from 80 to 90 μmol/L, whereas that of the recipient received the right kidney kept declining, and the lowest serum creatinine level was 232 μmol/L before the submission date (at postoperative 43 d). Through literature review, two cases successfully undergoing kidney transplantation from the same MFS donor were reported. Both two recipients experienced delayed graft function, and then renal function was restored to normal. Until the publication date, 1 recipient has survived for 6 years, and the other recipient died of de novo cerebrovascular disease at postoperative 2 years.   Conclusions  MFS patients may serve as an acceptable source of kidney donors. However, the willingness and general conditions of the recipients should be carefully evaluated before kidney transplantation. Intraoperatively, potential risk of tear of renal arterial media should be properly treated. Extensive attention should be paid to the incidence of postoperative complications.
Progress in diagnosis and treatment of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation
Feng Yanjie, Li Jingdong, Li Qiang, Gong Caifang, Tao Jilin
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023240
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In recent years, with the development of organ preservation, surgical techniques, perioperative management and immunosuppression regimens, the success rate of liver transplantation and survival rate of the recipients have been significantly enhanced. Liver transplantation has become the optimal treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. However, biliary complications still commonly occur after liver transplantation, especially biliary anastomotic stricture. Severe biliary anastomotic stricture will not only increase the cost of treatment, but also lead to graft loss and even affect the survival rate of recipients. Therefore, timely diagnosis and treatment of biliary anastomotic stricture play a significant role in improving the survival rate of liver transplant recipients. In this article, the risk factors, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide novel ideas for the research, diagnosis and treatment of biliary anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation, and further enhance clinical efficacy of liver transplantation and the quality of life of recipients.
Down-regulating XBP1s alleviates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of renal tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting ITPR-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction
Ni Haiqiang, Peng Xuan, Gu Shiqi, Gong Nianqiao
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023198
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  Objective  To evaluate the effect of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of mouse renal tubular epithelial cells and unravel underlying mechanism.   Methods  Mouse renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), Ad-shNC+H/R group and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group. The apoptosis level, mitochondrial reactive oxygen activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial calcium ion level were detected in each group. Chromatin immunocoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) was employed to analyze the binding sites of XBP1s in regulating the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) family. The expression levels of XBP1s and ITPR family messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were determined in each group.   Results  Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the apoptosis level was higher, the amount of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species was increased, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and mitochondrial calcium ion level was elevated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the apoptosis level was lower, the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species was decreased, mitochondrial membrane potential was elevated, and mitochondrial calcium ion level was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 mRNAs and proteins were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (all P<0.05). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 proteins were up-regulated in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-NC+H/R group, relative expression levels of XBP1s, ITPR1, ITPR2 and ITPR3 were down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05). ChIP-seq results showed that XBP1s could bind to the promoter and exon of ITPR1, the exon of ITPR2, and the exon of ITPR3.   Conclusions  XBP1s may affect mitochondria-related endoplasmic reticulum structure and function by directly regulating ITPR transcription and translation. Down-regulating XBP1s may inhibit ITPR expression and mitigate mitochondrial damage.
Liver transplantation for end-stage hepatic alveolar echinococcosis
Pang Beichuan, Zhang Na, Zuo Bangyou, Yang Chong, Zhang Yu, Deng Shaoping
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023254
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Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE) is a common zoonotic endemic parasitic disease in western China. It lacks of typical clinical manifestations in the early stage, and symptoms become prominent during the end stage, with an alarmingly high mortality rate. Among the treatment of end-stage HAE (es-HAE), orthotopic liver transplantation is almost the only radical treatment due to insufficient remnant liver volume, uncontrollable bleeding and difficulty in vascular reconstruction in vivo. However, the shortage of donor liver and long-term postoperative use of immunosuppressants limit its application. The introduction of ex vivo liver resection and autotransplantation (ELRA) resolves this dilemma and significantly broadens the indications of es-HAE. In addition, multiple centers in China have optimized and modified ELRA to further improve the treatment system of es-HAE. At present, liver transplantation (including ELRA) of es-HAE remains a hot topic for clinicians. In this article, orthotopic liver transplantation, ELRA, auxiliary ELRA and other surgical treatment of es-HAE were reviewed, aiming to further enhance the diagnosis and treatment of es-HAE and improve clinical prognosis of the recipients.
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency after kidney transplantation: a case report and literature review
Dong Kun, Su Ruiling, Chen Junze, Chen Guanmiao, Dong Chunqiang
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023182
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  Objective  To summarize the diagnosis and treatment experience of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency after kidney transplantation.   Methods  Clinical data of 1 patient with adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency after kidney transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency were summarized by literature review.   Results  Renal biopsy showed that salt crystallization was found in most renal tubule lumen and positive results were observed under polarized light microscopy. After allopurinol, hemodialysis and anti-crystallization treatment, the graft function was gradually recovered. After postoperative 1-year follow-up, the patient's renal function was properly recovered.   Conclusions  Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency after kidney transplantation may lead to delayed graft function or graft dysfunction. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment may delay disease progression and improve renal function.
Progress in quality management and control of donor organ procurement in foreign countries
Jin Lyu, Fan Xiaoli, Ye Qifa
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023206
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Since the 20th century, organ transplantation has become a breakthrough technology to effectively save the lives of patients with end-stage organ failure, which has significantly enhanced the quality of life of patients. Organ donation is an important source of organ transplantation. Improving the quality of donor organ procurement is the key to promote the translation of donor organs and improve the prognosis of organ transplantation recipients. The United States, Spain and other countries have put forward a series of policies and standards in the quality management and control of donor organ procurement and achieved positive results. In this article, related concepts of medical quality management and control, advanced strategies and models of international donor organ procurement quality management, and quality control measures of Organ Procurement Organization, donors and donor organs were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for establishing a quality management and control system of donor organs with "Chinese characteristics" and advancing high-speed and high-quality development of donor organ procurement.
Application progress of mesenchymal stem cells in islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus
Zhu Shufang, Mou Lisha
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023194
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Islet transplantation is considered as one of the most effective approach for type 1 diabetes mellitus, although its efficacy is limited by several factors. Anoxia, stress and rejection occurring during the isolation, culturing and transplantation of islets may have impact on the outcome of the islet transplantation. Due to the biological properties such as anti-inflammation, angiogenetic promotion and immune regulation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are all the way focused by researchers. Additionally, exosome, a derivative of MSC, also plays an import role in anoxia-induced oxidative stress modulation, angiogenetic promotion, and immune regulation. MSC-based islet transplantation may be a useful therapeutic tool in treating type 1 diabetes. Therefore, in this review, the potential effect of MSC prior and posterior to the operation of the islet transplantation, its clinical application as well as its limitations were reviewed, aiming to offer insights into the future application of islet transplantation in treating type 1 diabetes.
Correlation between lung allocation score and early death risk of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after lung transplantation
Gu Meirong, Liu Minqiang, Dai Taoyin, Gu Sijia, Li Xiaoshan, Xu Bo, Hu Chunxiao, Chen Jingyu
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023200
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  Objective  To analyze the correlation between the lung allocation score (LAS) and the risk of early death in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) after lung transplantation.   Methods  Clinical data of 275 patients with IPF were retrospectively analyzed. The correlation between LAS and the risk of early death in IPF patients after lung transplantation and the correlation between LAS and complications at postoperative 1 year was assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.   Results  Among 275 recipients, 62, 83, 95 and 108 cases died within postoperative 30, 90, 180 and 365 d, respectively. LAS was significantly correlated with 30-, 90-, 180- and 365-d fatality of IPF patients (all P<0.05), whereas it was not correlated with the incidence of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) at 365 d after lung transplantation (both P>0.05).   Conclusions  LAS is correlated with the risk of early death of IPF patients after lung transplantation. However, it is not correlated the incidence of PGD and AKI early after lung transplantation. Special attention should be paid to the effect of comprehensive factors upon PGD and AKI.
Application of xenotransplantation in clinical practice
Sun Shengkun, Yang Shujun, Wei Hao, Yang Haihong, Lu Jing, Peng Jiang
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023234
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Organ transplantation is the optimal treatment for end-stage organ failure. Nevertheless, organ shortage is a global problem, which limits further development of organ transplantation. Recent research shows that genetically-modified pig may become a realistic alternative source of clinical organ transplantation. Xenotransplantation may serve as one of the effective measures to resolve the problem of organ shortage. Since 2021, 2 cases of living xenotransplantation and 6 cases of xenotransplantation in brain-dead recipients have been performed worldwide, and phase Ⅰ clinical trial of xenotransplantation has been launched, and the results have exceeded expectations. Therefore, in this article, recent clinical trial results of xenotransplantation in living and brain-dead recipients were retrospectively analyzed, and scientific, technical and ethical issues related to clinical research of xenotransplantation were illustrated, hoping to provide reference for clinical research of xenotransplantation in China and promote the development of xenotransplantation in clinical practice.
Relationship between influencing factors of operation time and postoperative complications in hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy
Song Hongchen, Lyu Jingcheng, Guo Yuwen, Zhang Jian, Wang Zhipeng, Zhu Yichen
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023211
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  Objective  To identify the influencing factors of operation time of hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy, and to analyze the relationship between influencing factors and the severity of postoperative complications.   Methods  Clinical data of 91 donors who underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The correlation between preoperative baseline data and operation time was analyzed. The relationship between operation time and postoperative complications was assessed and the threshold of operation time was determined.   Results  Multiple donor renal arteries, thick perirenal and posterior renal fat, metabolic syndrome, high MAP score and Clavien-Dindo score prolonged the operation time. By analyzing the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, we found that when the operation time was ≥138 min, the incidence of postoperative complications of donors was significantly increased (P<0.05).   Conclusions  For donors with multiple renal arteries, thick perirenal and posterior renal fat, metabolic syndrome and high MAP score and Clavien-Dindo score, experienced surgeons should be selected to make adequate preoperative preparation and pay close attention after surgery, so as to timely detect postoperative complications and reduce the severity of complications, enhance clinical prognosis of the donors.
Application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in prevention and control of infection in solid organ transplantation
Man Lin, Li Xiaoshan, Wang Wenjing, Qian Ting, Xiong Min, Yang Hang, Chen Jingyu, Wu Bo
 doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023181
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Organ transplantation has become an effective treatment for multiple end-stage diseases. However, the recipients of organ transplantation need to take immunosuppressive drugs for a long time after operation, which leads to low immune function and relatively high incidence of bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Traditional microbial detection methods, such as pathogen culture, immunological detection and polymerase chain reaction, have been widely applied in infection detection, whereas these methods may cause problems, such as long detection time and presumed pathogens. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing has been widely adopted in infection prevention and control in organ transplantation in recent years due to high detection rate and comprehensive detection of pathogen spectrum. In this article, the application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the prevention and control of infection in solid organ transplantation was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for the diagnosis and treatment of transplantation-related infection.
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Editorial
Diagnosis and treatment strategies for vascular complications after kidney transplantation
Zhang Jiangwei, Ding Xiaoming
2024, 15(1): 1-9.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023168
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Abstract:
With persistent progress in donor-recipient evaluation criteria, organ procurement and preservation regimens and surgical techniques, the incidence of vascular complication after kidney transplantation has been declined, whereas it is still one of the most severe surgical complications of kidney transplantation, which may lead to graft loss and recipient death, and seriously affect the efficacy of kidney transplantation. Therefore, the occurrence, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment strategies of common vascular complications after kidney transplantation, including vascular stenosis, arterial dissection, pseudoaneurysm, vascular rupture and thrombosis were reviewed in this article. In combination with the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications after kidney transplantation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, diagnosis and treatment strategies for common vascular complications after kidney transplantation were summarized, aiming to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications after kidney transplantation, lower the incidence of vascular complications, and improve clinical efficacy of kidney transplantation and survival rate of recipients.
Expert Forum
Progress in subclinical research of kidney xenotransplantation
Chen Yuxiang, Li Zhuocheng, Li Tao, Ma Xiaojie, Wang Yi, Jiang Hongtao
2024, 15(1): 10-18.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023256
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Xenotransplantation is an efficient pathway to solve the problem of transplant organ source deficiency in clinical settings. With the increasing progress of gene editing technique and immune suppression regimen, important development has been achieved on researches regarding pig to non-human primate kidney xenotransplantation, which provides a good condition for the introduction of the technique in the clinical application. In view of the substantial difference between human and non-human primate, and to meet the needs of current ethic requirements, it is necessary to perform subclinical studies for pig to human kidney xenotransplantation. In recent years, such subclinical studies with regard to the genetically modified pig to brain death recipient kidney xenotransplantation had been performed, indicating that kidney xenotransplantation gradually began to transit to the clinical development stage. However, donor/recipient selection and immune suppression regimen has not reached a consensus yet, and has to be clarified in subclinical studies. In this article, the current status and confronted problems of donor/recipient selection, immune suppression regimen and post transplantation management in the subclinical studies of kidney xenotransplantation were reviewed, aiming to promote the clinical transformation of kidney xenotransplantation to the clinical application.
Optimal diagnosis and treatment for renal allograft fibrosis
Wang Haojun, Sun Zejia, Wang Wei
2024, 15(1): 19-25.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023156
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Abstract:
Renal allograft fibrosis is one of the common and severe complications after kidney transplantation, which seriously affects the function and survival rate of renal allograft, and may even lead to organ failure and patient death. At present, the researches on renal allograft fibrosis are highly complicated, including immunity, ischemia-reperfusion injury, infection and drug toxicity, etc. The diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft fibrosis remain extremely challenging. In this article, the latest research progress was reviewed and the causes, novel diagnosis and treatment strategies for renal allograft fibrosis were investigated. By improving diagnostic accuracy and optimizing treatment regimen, it is expected to enhance clinical prognosis of kidney transplant recipients, aiming to provide reference for clinicians to deliver proper management for kidney transplant recipients.
Research progress in perioperative management of portal vein thrombosis in liver transplantation
Lyu Shaocheng, He Qiang
2024, 15(1): 26-32.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023185
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Portal vein thrombosis is one of the common complications of liver cirrhosis. The incidence of portal vein thrombosis is increased with the progression of diseases. The incidence and progression of portal vein thrombosis are associated with multiple factors. The indications of anticoagulant therapy remain to be investigated. At present, portal vein thrombosis is no longer considered as a contraindication for liver transplantation. Nevertheless, complicated portal vein thrombosis will increase perioperative risk of liver transplantation. How to restore the blood flow of portal vein system is a challenge for surgical decision-making in clinical practice. Rational preoperative typing, surgical planning and portal vein reconstruction are the keys to ensure favorable long-term prognosis of liver transplant recipients. In this article, epidemiological status, risk factors, typing and identification of portal vein thrombosis, preoperative and intraoperative management of portal vein thrombosis in liver transplantation, and the impact of portal vein thrombosis on the outcomes of liver transplantation were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for perioperative management of portal vein thrombosis throughout liver transplantation.
Strategies for ABO-incompatible liver transplantation
Zhang Xiaofeng, Zhu Zhenyu
2024, 15(1): 33-39.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023187
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Abstract:
With rapid development of organ transplantation, the issue of global organ shortage has become increasingly prominent. At present, liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. Nevertheless, the shortage of donors has been a key problem restricting the development of liver transplantation. China is a country with a larger number of hepatitis B, and the shortage of donor liver is particularly significant. Many critically ill patients often lose the best opportunity or even die because they cannot obtain a matched donor liver in time. As a strategy to expand the donor pool, ABO-incompatible (ABOi) liver transplantation offers new options for patients who are waiting for matched donors. However, ABOi liver transplantation is highly controversial due to higher risk of complications, such as severe infection, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), biliary complications, thrombotic microangiopathy, and acute kidney injury, etc. In this article, research progress in preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative strategies of ABOi liver transplantation was reviewed, aiming to provide reference for clinical application and research of ABOi liver transplantation.
Transplantation Forefront
Research progress on association between macrophages and ischemia-reperfusion injury
Liu Qi, Zhang Yannan, Sun Qiquan
2024, 15(1): 40-45.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023161
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Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an extremely complicated pathophysiological process, which may occur during the process of myocardial infarction, stroke, organ transplantation and temporary interruption of blood flow during surgery, etc. As key molecules of immune system, macrophages play a vital role in the pathogenesis of IRI. M1 macrophages are pro-inflammatory cells and participate in the elimination of pathogens. M2 macrophages exert anti-inflammatory effect and participate in tissue repair and remodeling and extracellular matrix remodeling. The balance between macrophage phenotypes is of significance for the outcome and treatment of IRI. This article reviewed the role of macrophages in IRI, including the balance between M1/M2 macrophage phenotype, the mechanism of infiltration and recruitment into different ischemic tissues. In addition, the potential therapeutic strategies of targeting macrophages during IRI were also discussed, aiming to provide reference for alleviating IRI and promoting tissue repair.
Original Article
Down-regulation of XBP1s alleviates the senescence of renal tubular epithelial cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation through Sirt3/SOD2/mtROS signaling pathway
Peng Xuan, Ni Haiqiang, Gu Shiqi, Gong Nianqiao
2024, 15(1): 46-54.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023186
Abstract(171) HTML(104) PDF 1853KB()
Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the role and mechanism of spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) in the senescence of primary renal tubular epithelial cells induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R).   Methods  Primary renal tubular epithelial cells were divided into the normal control group (NC group), H/R group, empty adenovirus negative control group (Ad-shNC group), targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus group (Ad-shXBP1s group), empty adenovirus+H/R treatment group (Ad-shNC+H/R group) and targeted silencing XBP1s adenovirus+H/R treatment group (Ad-shXBP1s +H/R group), respectively. The expression levels of XBP1s in the NC, H/R, Ad-shNC and Ad-shXBP1s groups were measured. The number of cells stained with β-galactosidase, the expression levels of cell aging markers including p53, p21 and γH2AX, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the Ad-shNC, Ad-shNC+H/R and Ad-shXBP1s+H/R groups. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was employed to verify Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) of XBP1s transcription regulation, and the expression levels of Sirt3 and downstream SOD2 after down-regulation of XBP1s were detected. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) were detected by flow cytometry.   Results  Compared with the NC group, the expression level of XBP1s was up-regulated in the H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the expression level of XBP1s was down-regulated in the Ad-shXBP1s group (both P<0.001). Compared with the Ad-shNC group, the number of cells stained with β-galactosidase was increased, the expression levels of p53, p21 and γH2AX were up-regulated, the levels of ROS, MDA and mtROS were increased, the SOD activity was decreased, the expression level of Sirt3 was down-regulated, and the ratio of Ac-SOD2/SOD2 was increased in the Ad-shNC+H/R group. Compared with the Ad-shNC+H/R group, the number of cells stained with β-galactosidase was decreased, the expression levels of p53, p21 and γH2AX were down-regulated, the levels of ROS, MDA and mtROS were decreased, the SOD activity was increased, the expression level of Sirt3 was up-regulated and the ratio of Ac-SOD2/SOD2 was decreased in the Ad-shXBP1s+H/R group (all P<0.05).   Conclusions  Down-regulation of XBP1s may ameliorate the senescence of primary renal tubular epithelial cells induced by H/R, which probably plays a role through the Sirt3/SOD2/mtROS signaling pathway.
Isolation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in transgenic pigs and co-culture with porcine islets
Zhu Shufang, Qu Zepeng, Lu Ying, Pan Dengke, Mou Lisha
2024, 15(1): 55-62.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023205
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Abstract:
  Objective  To investigate the isolation and culture of porcine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) with α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) gene knockout (GTKO), GTKO/ human CD46 (hCD46) insertion and cytidine monopho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH)/GGTA1 gene knockout (Neu5GC/Gal), and the protective effect of co-culture with porcine islets on islet cells.   Methods  Bone marrow was extracted from different transgenic pigs modified with GTKO, GTKO/hCD46 and Neu5GC/Gal. Porcine BMSC were isolated by the whole bone marrow adherent method and then cultured. The morphology of BMSC was observed and the surface markers of BMSC were identified by flow cytometry. Meantime, the multi-directional differentiation induced by BMSC was observed, and the labeling and tracing of BMSC were realized by green fluorescent protein (GFP) transfection. The porcine BMSC transfected with GFP were co-cultured with porcine islet cells. Morphological changes of porcine islet cells were observed, and compared with those in the porcine islet cell alone culture group.   Results  BMSC derived from pigs were spindle-shaped in vitro, expressing biomarkers of CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and CD166 rather than CD34 and CD45. These cells were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Porcine BMSC with GFP transfection could be labeled and traced, which could be stably expressed in the daughter cells after cell division. Porcine BMSC exerted certain protective effect on islet cells.   Conclusions  GFP-labeled porcine BMSC modified with GTKO, GTKO/hCD46 and Neu5GC/Gal are successfully established, which exert certain protective effect upon islet cells.
Diagnosis and treatment of the portal vein complications for children undergoing spilt liver transplantation
Zeng Kaining, Yang Qing, Yao Jia, Tang Hui, Fu Binsheng, Feng Xiao, Lyu Haijin, Yi Huimin, Yi Shuhong, Yang Yang
2024, 15(1): 63-69.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023241
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  Objective  To investigate the diagnosis and treatment strategy of the portal vein complications in children undergoing split liver transplantation.   Methods  The clinical data of 88 pediatric recipients who underwent split liver transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. Intraoperative anastomosis at the bifurcating site of the portal vein or donor iliac vein bypass anastomosis was performed depending on the internal diameter and development of the recipient's portal vein. A normalized portal venous blood stream monitoring was performed during the perioperative stage. After operation, heparin sodium was used to bridge warfarin for anticoagulation therapy. After portal vein stenosis or thrombosis was identified with enhanced CT or portography, managements including embolectomy, systemic anticoagulation, interventional thrombus removal, balloon dilatation and/or stenting were performed.   Results  Among the 88 recipients, a total of 10 children were diagnosed with portal vein complications, of which 4 cases were diagnosed with portal vein stenosis at 1 d, 2 months, 8 months, and 11 months after surgery, and 6 cases were diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis at intraoperative, 2 d, 3 d (n=2), 6 d, and 11 months after surgery, respectively. One patient with portal vein stenosis and one patient with portal vein thrombosis died perioperatively. The fatality related to portal vein complications was 2% (2/88). Of the remaining 8 patients, 1 underwent systemic anticoagulation, 2 underwent portal venous embolectomy, 1 underwent interventional balloon dilatation, and 4 underwent interventional balloon dilatation plus stenting. No portal venous related symptoms were detected during postoperative long term follow up, and the retested portal venous blood stream parameters were normal.   Conclusions  The normalized intra- and post-operative portal venous blood stream monitoring is a useful tool for the early detection of portal vein complications, the early utilization of useful managements such as intraoperative portal venous embolectomy, interventional balloon dilatation and stenting may effectively treat the portal vein complications, thus minimizing the portal vein complication related graft loss and recipient death.
Construction of competitive endogenous RNA network mediated by lung ischemia-reperfusion core genes
Li Xiaofeng, Tang Mingzheng, Liu Xixi, Song Ziqing, Zhang Guoxin, Yang Kaiyin, Zhang Lingyun
2024, 15(1): 70-81.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023166
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Abstract:
  Objective  To analyze the core genes of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and construct a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network.   Methods  Original data of GSE145989 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database as the training set, and the GSE172222 and GSE9634 datasets were used as the validation sets, and the differentially-expressed genes (DEG) were identified. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, and the core genes were screened, and the diagnostic values of these core genes and the immune infiltration levels of immune cells were evaluated. The ceRNA network was constructed and validated. The targeted drugs based on ceRNA network were assessed.   Results  A total of 179 DEG were identified, including 61 down-regulated and 118 up-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that DEGs were associated with multiple biological processes, such as cell migration, differentiation and regulation, etc. They were correlated with cell components, such as vesicle membrane, serosa and membrane raft, etc. They were also associated with multiple molecular functions, such as chemokine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor, immune receptor activity and antigen binding, etc. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEG were involved in tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Wnt, interleukin (IL)-17 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways, etc. PPI network suggested that CD8A, IL2RG, STAT1, CD3G and SYK were the core genes of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The ceRNA network prompted that miR-146a-3p, miR-28-5p and miR-593-3p were related to the expression level of CD3G. The miR-149-3p, miR-342-5p, miR-873-5p and miR-491-5p were correlated with the expression level of IL-2RG. The miR-194-3p, miR-512-3p, miR-377-3p and miR-590-3p were associated with the expression level of SYK. The miR-590-3p and miR-875-3p were related to the expression level of CD8A. The miR-143-5p, miR-1231, miR-590-3p and miR-875-3p were associated with the expression level of STAT1. There were 13 targeted drugs for CD3G, 4 targeted drugs for IL-2RG, 28 targeted drugs for SYK and 3 targeted drugs for lncRNA MUC2. No targeted drugs were identified for CD8A, STAT1 and other ceRNA network genes.   Conclusions  CD8A, IL2RG, STAT1, CD3G and SYK are the core genes of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The research and analysis of these core genes probably contribute to the diagnosis of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and providing novel research ideas and therapeutic targets.
Analysis of three-dimensional visualization imaging of severe portal vein stenosis after liver transplantation and clinical efficacy of portal vein stent implantation
Zhao Hongqiang, Liu Ying, Ma Jianming, Li Ang, Yu Lihan, Tong Xuan, Wu Guangdong, Lu Qian, Zhang Yuewei, Tang Rui
2024, 15(1): 82-89.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023201
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  Objective  To analyze three-dimensional imaging characteristics and advantages for severe portal vein stenosis after liver transplantation, and to evaluate clinical efficacy of portal vein stent implantation.   Methods  Clinical data of 10 patients who received portal vein stent implantation for severe portal vein stenosis after liver transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. Imaging characteristics of severe portal vein stenosis, and advantages of three-dimensional reconstruction imaging and interventional treatment efficacy for severe portal vein stenosis were analyzed.   Results  Among 10 patients, 3 cases were diagnosed with centripetal stenosis, tortuosity angulation-induced stenosis in 2 cases, compression-induced stenosis in 2 cases, long-segment stenosis and/or vascular occlusion in 3 cases. Three-dimensional reconstruction images possessed advantages in accurate identification of stenosis, identification of stenosis types and measurement of stenosis length. All patients were successfully implanted with portal vein stents. After stent implantation, the diameter of the minimum diameter of portal vein was increased [(6.2±0.9) mm vs. (2.6±1.7) mm, P<0.05], the flow velocity at anastomotic site was decreased [(57±19) cm/s vs. (128±27) cm/s, P<0.05], and the flow velocity at the portal vein adjacent to the liver was increased [(41±6) cm/s vs. (18±6) cm/s, P<0.05]. One patient suffered from intrahepatic hematoma caused by interventional puncture, which was mitigated after conservative observation and treatment. The remaining patients did not experience relevant complications.   Conclusions  Three-dimensional visualization technique may visually display the location, characteristics and severity of stenosis, which is beneficial for clinicians to make treatment decisions and assist interventional procedures. Timely implantation of portal vein stent may effectively reverse pathological process and improve portal vein blood flow.
Screening and bioinformatics analysis of key autophagy-related genes in alcoholic hepatitis
Yuan Chao, Lian Qinghai, Ni Beibei, Xu Yan, Zhang Tong, Zhang Jian
2024, 15(1): 90-101.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023163
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  Objective  To screen key autophagy-related genes in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and investigate potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AH.   Methods  Two AH gene chips in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and autophagy-related data sets obtained from MSigDB and GeneCards databases were used, and the key genes were verified and obtained by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). The screened key genes were subject to gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein-protein interaction (PPI) and immune infiltration analyses. Messenger RNA (mRNA)- microRNA (miRNA) network was constructed to analyze the expression differences of key autophagy-related genes during different stages of AH, which were further validated by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in the liver tissues of AH patients and mice.   Results  Eleven autophagy-related genes were screened in AH (EEF1A2, CFTR, SOX4, TREM2, CTHRC1, HSPB8, TUBB3, PRKAA2, RNASE1, MTCL1 and HGF), all of which were up-regulated. In the liver tissues of AH patients and mice, the relative expression levels of SOX4, TREM2, HSPB8 and PRKAA2 in the AH group were higher than those in the control group.   Conclusions  SOX4, TREM2, HSPB8 and PRKAA2 may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AH.
Construction and validation of a prediction model for public acceptance of kidney xenotransplantation in China
Yang Shujun, Wei Hao, Peng Jiang, Cui Mengyi, Shang Panfeng, Sun Shengkun
2024, 15(1): 102-111.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023164
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  Objective   To explore the public attitude towards kidney xenotransplantation in China by constructing and validating the prediction model based on xenotransplantation questionnaire.   Methods  A convenient sampling survey was conducted among the public in China with the platform of Wenjuanxing to analyze public acceptance of kidney xenotransplantation and influencing factors. Using random distribution method, all included questionnaires (n=2 280) were divided into the training and validation sets according to a ratio of 7:3. A prediction model was constructed and validated.   Results  A total of 2 280 questionnaires were included. The public acceptance rate of xenotransplantation was 71.3%. Multivariate analysis showed that gender, marital status, resident area, medical insurance coverage, religious belief, vegetarianism, awareness of kidney xenotransplantation and whether on the waiting list for kidney transplantation were the independent influencing factors for public acceptance of kidney xenotransplantation (all P<0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the prediction model in the training set was 0.773, and 0.785 in the validation set. The calibration curves in the training and validation sets indicated that the prediction models yielded good prediction value. Decision curve analysis (DCA) suggested that the prediction efficiency of the model was high.   Conclusions  In China, public acceptance of kidney xenotransplantation is relatively high, whereas it remains to be significantly enhanced. The prediction model based on questionnaire survey has favorable prediction efficiency, which provides reference for subsequent research.
Lung transplantation after paraquat poisoning in an adolescent: one case report and literature review
Meng Fanjie, Zhang Yan, Cai Hongfei, Meng Fanyu, Wang Rui, Cui Youbin, Chen Jingyu, Li Yang
2024, 15(1): 112-117.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023175
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  Objective  To summarize the effect of the timing of lung transplantation and related treatment measures on clinical prognosis of patients with paraquat poisoning.   Methods  Clinical data of a patient with paraquat poisoning undergoing bilateral lung transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination, diagnosis and treatment of this patient were summarized and analyzed.   Results  A 17-year-old adolescent was admitted to hospital due to nausea, vomiting, cough and systemic fatigue after oral intake of 20-30 mL of 25% paraquat. After symptomatic support treatment, the oxygen saturation was not improved, and pulmonary fibrosis continued to progress. Therefore, sequential bilateral lung transplantation was performed under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). After postoperative rehabilitation and active prevention and treatment for postoperative complications, the patient was discharged at postoperative 50 d.   Conclusions  The timing of lung transplantation after paraquat poisoning may be selected when the liver and kidney function start to recover. Active and targeted prevention of potential pathogen infection in perioperative period and early rehabilitation training contribute to improving clinical prognosis of lung transplant recipients.
Transplantation Ethics
Ethic analysis of the role of incentive system in the organ donation after citizen’s death
Feng Longfei, Zhai Xiaomei
2024, 15(1): 118-124.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023225
Abstract(140) HTML(107) PDF 539KB()
Abstract:
Organ transplantation has demonstrated its significant values by its excellent effectiveness in health reconstruction and life survival, where organ donation is a major component in promoting the development of organ transplantation in China. In recent years, an important progress has been made in organ transplantation in China with an annually increased organ donation rate. In spite of this, there is a serious fact confronted by us that the donated organ quantity is insufficient, which may be solved by further improvement of medical science and public health policy. According to the international experience, an incentive system may improve the organ donation rate effectively although the hidden ethic property of the incentive system itself may have an essentially conflict with the altruism contained in the organ donation. Therefore, in this article, the property of the incentive system, the interaction between organ donation and incentive system and the ethic justification of the system was reviewed, aiming to provide a reference for the further development of the organ donation and transplantation business in China.
Review Article
Regulation mechanism of macrophage transition in renal fibrosis
Yang Yanyan, Tao Tao, Luo Pengli
2024, 15(1): 125-130.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023190
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Renal fibrosis is a common pathological change from development to end-stage renal diseases in all progressive chronic kidney diseases. Renal fibrosis after kidney transplantation will severely affect the renal graft function. Macrophages are characterized with high heterogeneity and plasticity. During the process of kidney injury, macrophages are recruited, activated and polarized by local microenvironment, and participate in the process of renal tissue injury, repair and fibrosis through multiple mechanisms. Recent studies have shown that macrophages may transit into myofibroblasts and directly participate in the formation of renal fibrosis. This process is known as macrophage-myofibroblast transition. Nevertheless, the regulatory mechanism remains elusive. In this article, the role of macrophages in renal fibrosis, the characteristics of macrophage-myofibroblast transition and the possible regulatory mechanism were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for relevant research of renal fibrosis.
Evolution and innovation of preservation fluid for donor liver
Yu Guotao, Yin Yanfeng, Yan Chuntao, Zou Guangxu, Zhang Huangyan, Ma Li, Hu Zongqiang
2024, 15(1): 131-137.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023165
Abstract(133) HTML(98) PDF 536KB()
Abstract:
Organ preservation fluid could mitigate cold ischemia injury and maintain normal function of the grafts. At present, how to reduce a series of injury caused by cold ischemia of donor liver and improve the preservation quality of grafts are the hot and challenging spots in this field. Currently, preservation fluid in clinical practice has not achieved ideal preservation effect, especially for the protection of marginal donor organs. In the context of severe donor shortage, the key solution is still to explore the optimal preservation protocol for donor liver to prevent grafts from cold ischemia injury. In this article, the mechanism of donor liver injury during cold ischemia, the classification and evolution of donor liver preservation fluid were summarized, the development direction and challenges of donor liver preservation fluid were discussed, aiming to provide novel ideas and references for the research and development of donor liver preservation fluid.
Clinical management strategies for recipients with renal graft loss
Yang Hao, Lin Jun, Zhang Jian
2024, 15(1): 138-144.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023149
Abstract(217) HTML(170) PDF 531KB()
Abstract:
With the maturity of kidney transplantation, introduction of new immunosuppressive drugs and improvement of immunosuppressive regimen, the short-term survival rate of kidney transplant recipients has been significantly improved, whereas the long-term survival rate has not been significantly elevated. Kidney transplant recipients may have the risk of renal graft loss. Clinical management after renal graft loss is complicated, including the adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs, management of renal graft and selection of subsequent renal replacement therapy. These management procedures directly affect clinical prognosis of patients with renal graft loss. Nevertheless, relevant guidelines or consensuses are still lacking. Clinical management of patients after renal graft loss highly depend upon clinicians’ experience. In this article, the adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs, management of renal graft and selection of subsequent renal replacement therapy were reviewed, aiming to provide reference for prolonging the survival and improving the quality of life of these patients.
Research progress in risk factors of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus
Dong Junfeng, Xue Qiang, Teng Fei, Zhao Yuanyu, Yin Hao
2024, 15(1): 145-150.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023154
Abstract(130) HTML(91) PDF 514KB()
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Solid organ transplantation has significantly prolonged the survival of patients with end-stage diseases. However, long-term use of immunosuppressants will increase the risk of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in the recipients, thereby elevating the risk of infection, cardiovascular disease and death. In recent years, with persistent improvement of diagnostic criteria of PTDM, clinicians have deepened the understanding of this disease. Compared with type 2 diabetes mellitus, PTDM significantly differs in pathophysiological characteristics and clinical progression. Hence, different treatment strategies should be adopted. Early identification of risk factors of organ transplant recipients, early diagnosis and intervention are of significance for improving the quality of life of recipients, prolonging the survival of grafts and reducing the fatality of recipients. Therefore, the diagnosis, incidence and risk factors of PTDM were reviewed in this article, aiming to provide reference for clinicians to deliver prompt diagnosis and intervention for PTDM.
Clinical treatment and management of invasive fungal disease in recipients of solid organ transplantation
Arnoux Robenson Jean, Zhou Peijun
2024, 15(1): 151-159.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2023089
Abstract(184) HTML(55) PDF 613KB()
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With widespread application of solid organ transplantation (SOT), the incidence of postoperative invasive fungal disease (IFD) in SOT recipients has been increased year by year. In recent years, the awareness of preventive antifungal therapy for SOT recipients has been gradually strengthened. However, the problem of fungal resistance has also emerged, leading to unsatisfactory efficacy of original standardized antifungal regimens. Drug-drug interaction and hepatorenal toxicity induced by drugs are also challenges facing clinicians. In this article, the characteristics of drug-drug interaction and hepatorenal toxicity among triazole, echinocandin and polyene antifungal drugs and immunosuppressants were reviewed, and postoperative preventive strategies for IFD in different types of SOT recipients and treatment strategies for IFD caused by infection of different pathogens were summarized, aiming to provide reference for physicians in organ transplantation and related disciplines.
2024, 15(1): 160-162.  
Abstract(86) HTML(57) PDF 320KB()
Abstract:
Guideline on immunosuppressive therapy of recipients with renal transplantation in China(2016 edition)
2016, 7(5): 327-331.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.05.001
Abstract(1345) HTML(1033) PDF 201KB(409)
摘要:
为提高临床医师对肾移植受者免疫抑制治疗的认识, 规范国内肾移植受者管理, 帮助医师在肾移植临床实践中做出合理决策, 我们组织专家制订了《中国肾移植受者免疫抑制治疗指南(2016版)》。该指南以《2009版改善全球肾病预后组织(KDIGO)肾移植受者管理指南》为主要参考, 结合我国的临床实践经验, 希望能为相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Development status of organ transplantation in China: the report on the 2018 Annual Meeting of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
Shi Bingyi
2019, 10(1): 32-35.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.01.004
Abstract(1594) HTML(871) PDF 886KB(198)
摘要:
我国的器官移植事业正处于由数量规模型发展向高质量和高科技含量提升、由移植大国向移植强国冲刺的历史关键时期。在2018年中华医学会器官移植学年会上,主任委员石炳毅教授从中国器官捐献与移植体系建设、中国器官移植发展现状两大方面,作了“继往开来,中国器官移植的发展现状”的报告。新的历史时期赋予我们新的历史使命,器官移植学分会要主动作为,推动科学发展,为贯彻新理念、拓宽新视野、实现新愿景而努力奋斗。
Technical specifcation for clinical application of immunosuppressive agents in organ transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(3): 213-226.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.03.001
Abstract(1558) HTML(1983) PDF 1076KB(574)
摘要:
为了进一步规范器官移植免疫抑制剂的临床应用,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织全国31家移植中心的器官移植专家,从器官移植免疫诱导药物应用技术规范、器官移植维持期免疫抑制剂应用技术规范、器官移植常用免疫抑制方案技术规范、器官移植免疫抑制剂血药浓度监测技术规范、器官移植药物性肝肾损伤治疗技术规范等方面,制订本规范,以帮助器官移植工作者规范和优化器官移植免疫抑制剂的临床应用。
Clinical guideline on living donor renal transplantation in China (2016 edition)
2016, 7(6): 417-426.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2016.06.002
Abstract(2121) HTML(824) PDF 323KB(443)
摘要:
活体供肾移植经历半个多世纪的发展,已成为终末期肾病患者的重要治疗手段。在我国,亲属活体器官捐献肾移植作为家庭自救的方式之一,近年来已成为肾脏供体来源的重要补充部分。本指南以世界卫生组织《人体器官移植指导原则》(1991)、中华人民共和国国务院《人体器官移植条例》(2007)以及国家卫生部《关于规范活体器官移植的若干规定》(2010)为法律依据,在《中国活体供肾移植指南》(2009)的基础上进行更新。内容包括活体供肾移植的伦理学、供者与受者的医学评估、活体供肾摘取原则与手术方式、供者近期与远期并发症以及供者的长期随访等。
Technical specification for the diagnosis and treatment on rejection of renal transplantation (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(5): 505-512.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.05.008
Abstract(1120) HTML(737) PDF 882KB(309)
摘要:
为了进一步规范肾移植排斥反应的临床诊断与治疗, 中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植学专家, 总结各移植中心的肾移植临床经验, 在《中国肾脏移植排斥反应临床诊疗指南(2016版)》的基础上, 并依据Banff标准, 从超急性排斥反应、急性加速性排斥反应、急性排斥反应、慢性排斥反应等方面, 制订本规范。
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association Process and specification of Chinese donation after citizen′s death (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(2): 122-127.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.02.003
Abstract(2968) HTML(1377) PDF 5080KB(292)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国公民逝世后器官捐献的流程,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植和器官捐献相关专家,从报名登记、捐献评估、捐献确认、器官获取、器官分配、遗体处理、人道救助、捐献文书归档等8个环节,制定中国公民逝世后器官捐献流程和规范(2019版)。
2019, 10(2): 142-148.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.02.005
Abstract(1563) HTML(1447) PDF 7197KB(368)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国实体器官移植(SOT)受者巨细胞病毒(CMV)感染的诊断和治疗,中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植专家、感染病学专家及呼吸内科专家,在《实体器官移植受者巨细胞病毒感染诊疗指南(2017版)》的基础上,从CMV感染的主要危险因素、实验室诊断、临床类型、预防方案,CMV病的治疗,儿童SOT术后CMV感染或CMV病的防治,CMV肺炎合并伊氏肺孢子菌肺炎的防治等方面,制订本规范,以期为我国SOT术后CMV感染的规范化防治提供指导意见。
Guideline on the application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the perioperative period of lung transplantation(2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, National Quality Management and Control Center for Lung Transplantation
2019, 10(4): 402-409.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.04.009
Abstract(667) HTML(349) PDF 1381KB(107)
摘要:
肺移植是治疗多种终末期肺疾病的唯一有效方法,体外膜肺氧合(ECMO)在肺移植围手术期起到重要的桥接和支持作用。本指南从肺移植术前ECMO的桥接治疗、术中的心肺支持及术后功能维持等方面,总结肺移植临床实践经验,以期为我国肺移植相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Technical specifcation for diagnosis and treatment of post transplantation diabetes mellitus in China (2019 edition)
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association
2019, 10(1): 1-9.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2019.01.001
Abstract(268) HTML(161) PDF 724KB(94)
摘要:
为了进一步规范中国移植后糖尿病(PTDM)的诊断和治疗, 中华医学会器官移植学分会组织器官移植专家和糖尿病专家, 总结器官移植后血糖异常的国内外最新进展, 在《中国器官移植术后糖尿病诊疗指南(2016版)》的基础上, 结合临床实践, 从PTDM的定义和诊断标准、流行病学、危险因素和发病机制、对移植受者和移植物预后的影响、预防及治疗策略等方面, 制定PTDM诊疗技术规范(2019版)。
Guideline on the standard of lung transplantation donors and the acquisition and transshipment in China
Branch of Organ Transplantation of Chinese Medical Association, National Quality Management and Control Center for Lung Transplantation
2018, 9(5): 325-333.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2018.05.001
Abstract(977) HTML(453) PDF 1533KB(97)
摘要:
2015年我国供肺利用率仅约5%。从器官获取组织(OPO)进行供肺协调、初步评估和维护,到供肺获取直至最后经民航、高速公路、高铁转运完成肺移植,每一环节都相当艰难。许多初评合格的供肺,由于缺乏有效的维护而无法用于移植。因此,我们组织专家制订我国肺移植供体标准及获取转运指南,从我国肺移植供肺捐献的分类、供肺选择标准、供肺维护策略、供肺获取流程、供肺转运流程等方面,总结我国肺移植的临床实践经验,希望能为肺移植相关临床科室提供工作指引。
Overview of global organ donation and transplantation in 2020
Jiang Wenshi, Sun Yongkang, Yan Juan, Jiang Feng, Wang Huiying, Ma Qiruo, Xie Ying, He Xiangxiang, Wu Xiaotong
2021, 12(4): 376-383.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2021.04.002
Abstract(3266) HTML(4421) PDF 1734KB(4421)
Abstract:
  Objective  At present, the novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) pandemic is still raging in certain regions around the globe, and the prevention and control of the pandemic should be strengthened. Under the challenges of respective social environment and allocation of medical resources, and support from the inertia and inherent productivity of the system on which the industry depends, extensive attempts are being delivered to push forward the work of organ donation and transplantation in each country. Under the guidance of national experts and committee members, Shanxi Provincial Human Organ Procurement and Allocation Service Center was established on August 28, 2018 approved by the former Shanxi Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission. It is the only independent non-profit medical institution in Shanxi Province. In this article, the system construction of citizen's organ donation and transplantation fitting national and provincial conditions was further explored according to the data analysis of organ donation and transplantation in the United States and Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic combined with the implementation of organ donation work in Shanxi Provincial Human Organ Procurement and Allocation Service Center.
Chinese expert consensus on organ protection of transplantation (2022 edition)
China Liver Transplant Registry, National Center for Healthcare Quality Management in Liver Transplant, National Quality Control Center for Human Donated Organ Procurement, National Clinical Research Center for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation, Committee on Transplant Organ Quality Control, Branch of Organ Transplant Physicians of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Organ Procurement and Allocation Working Committee of the China Hospital Association, National Trauma Medical Center Organ Protection Committee
2022, 13(2): 144-160.   doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-7445.2022.02.002
Abstract(2368) HTML(785) PDF 18636KB(785)
Abstract:
Organ transplantation is the most effective treatment for end-stage organ failure, and voluntary donation after citizen's death is the only source of transplant organ in China. Clinically, transplant organ protection technique plays a critical role in improving the quality of transplant organs and the prognosis of recipients. On the basis of domestic and worldwide basic research and clinical practice of transplant organ protection and according to the Oxford evidence classification and GRADE system, the experts organized by Branch of Organ Transplant Physicians of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Branch of Transplantation Group of Surgery of Chinese Medical Association and China Liver Transplant Registry Scientific Committee had compiled and published the Chinese Expert Consensus on Organ Protection of Transplantation (2016 edition) for liver, kidney, pancreas, small intestine, heart, lung transplant organs. With the support of China Liver Transplant Registry, National Trauma Medical Center, National Quality Control Center for Human Donated Organ Procurement, National Clinical Research Center for Orthopedics, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation and National Center for Healthcare Quality Management in Liver Transplant combined with recent domeatic and worldwide clinical practice and research progress for organ transplantation and organ protection, the Chinese Expert Consensus on Organ Protection of Transplantation (2022 edition) has been published recently. This consensus focuses on updating the technical progress and evidence-based medicine of organ procurement, preservation, transport, and quality evaluation in clinical practice. Additionally, the content of composite tissue transplantation mainly including limb transplantation has also been covered. The aim is to promote the the scientific and standardized clinical organ transplantation.

Competent Authorities: Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China

Sponsored by: Sun Yat-sen University

Presented by: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University

Editor-in-Chief: Gui-Hua Chen

Publisher: Editorial Office of Organ Transplantation

Address: The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600, Tianhe Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou

Postcode: 510630

Tel: 020-38736410

Email: organtranspl@163.com

Postal Code: 46-35

Website: http://www.organtranspl.com

Journal: bimonthly

Price: 20 yuan for each period and 120 yuan for the whole year

CN 44-1665/R

ISSN 1674-7445

Open Access